National Taiwan University

Environmental and Landscape Ecological Lab


Work Package
Conceptual Models
Team Members
Advisory Board Member
Expected Results
Department of Bioenvironmental System Engineering at NTU




(1)  The major purposes of SCALES-Taiwan are as follows: To integrate the issue scale into policy and decision making, as well as biodiversity (bird diversity) management in Asia and Taiwan scales.

(2)  To collaborate, exchange and share methods and results of the SCALES project.




(1)  To provide the most appropriate multi-scale spatiotemporal modeling and scale impact assessment tools, policy instruments and national responsibility assessment. To foster our capacity for bird diversity conservation across spatial and temporal scales and disseminate them to a wide range of users in Asia, including Taiwan.

(2)  To perform scale-dependent impacts analysis (based on species traits)

(3)  To develop methods for upscaling and downscaling

(4)  To devise methods for multi-scale spatiotemporal modeling and mapping

(5)  To develop national responsibility assessment and tools

(6)  To develop analysis methods and achieve policy integration for effective Taiwan or Asia bird diversity conservation across scales

(7)  To translate and integrate results into SCALES project for a support tool kit online supporting sustainable conservation across scales

(8)  Disseminate the results to relevant individuals


Work Packages

¨Work package 1: WP_TW1: Multi-scale Spatiotemporal Trend Analysis and Map Methods and Tools


¨Work package 2: WP_TW2: Multi-scale Effects of Land-use on Biotic Processes


¨Work package 3: WP_TW3: Hierarchical National Responsibility Approach and Tools



Conceptual Models:



¨National Taiwan University
¤Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering






Hwa-Lung Yu, Assistant Professor

nMeng-Ing Li, Postdoctoral Fellow



nYen-Lan Liu, Ph.D. Student (Department of Geography)



nChiun-Wei Hung, Ph.D. Student
nMaster Students


Department of Forestry and Resource Conservation


n and his Ph.D. and Master Students

Chyi-Rong Chiou, Assistant Professor

and his Ph.D. Student


¨Chinese Culture University
¤Department of Landscape Architecture

and her master students

Advisory Board Member:

¨Kainan University
¤Office of International Programs and Services
nKang-Tsung Chang, Ph.D. Professor of Tourism &Hospitality, Professor Emeritus, University of Idaho (USA)


National Taiwan University

Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology



Chinese Cultural University

College of Environmental Design

Monica Kuo, Dean



Expected Results:

¨  WP 1: Multi-scale Spatiotemporal Trend Analysis and Map Methods and Tools

¤  Develop multi-scale identification methods

¤  Identify multiple scales of bird diversity

¤  Develop multi-scale AIK spatiotemporal analysis and Models

¤  Map multi-scale distribution of Bird diversity and variations at various scales

¤  Develop multi-scale analysis and map tools

¤  Share and exchange results with the SCALES team

¨  WP 2: Land Use Effect on Ecosystem Resistance to Biotic Homogenization across Scales

¤  A model with factors affecting ecosystem’s resistance to avian homogenization at county, regional, city, habitat scales.

¤  Conservation planning guidelines for restraining biotic homogenization in focal area.

¤  Design guidelines for increasing native species and constraining aggressive/invasive species in focal areas.

¤  Identify driving factors of impacting bird diversity at various scales

¤  Delineate impacts of land use and factors on bird diversity at various scales

¤  Share and exchange results with the SCALES team

¨  WP 3: Hierarchical National Responsibility Approach and Tools

¤  Provide a list of national responsibility of species conservation by using the range-based approach (Schmeller et al. 2008b)

¤  Compare the list of national responsibility with the current endangerment level given by IUCN Red List

¤  Compare the list of national responsibility with the current protected species list in Taiwan

¤  Identify candidate species for future considerations of legal protection in Taiwan

¤  Develop Hierarchical national responsibility System Model and Tools

¤  Share and exchange results with the SCALES team


Selected publications

Lin, Y.-P., C.-R. Chang, H.-J. Chu, B.-Y. Chen (2011) Identifying the spatial mixture distribution of bird diversity across urban and suburban areas in the metropolis: a case study in Taipei Basin of Taiwan, Landscape and Urban Planning. (Accepted)

Lin, Y.-P., Cheng-Long Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan Yu, Chung-Wei Huang, Yung-Chieh Wang, Yu-Wen Chen, W.-Y. Wu (2011) Monitoring and estimating the flow conditions and fish presence probability under various flow conditions at reach scale using Genetic algorithms and Kriging methods. Ecological Modeling 222, 762-775.

Wu, C.-F., Y.-P. Lin, S.-H. Lin (2011) Hybrid approach for comparing impacts of bird diversity conservation scenarios on landscape patterns and bird habitat suitability in the Shangan subwatershed in Taiwan. Journal of Environmental Management. (Accepted)

Lin, Y.-P., H.-J. Chu, Y.-L. Hwang, C.-H. Tan, S. Rouhani. (2010) Monitoring and Identification of Spatiotemporal Landscape Changes in Multiple Remote Sensing Images by Using a Stratified Conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling Approach and geostatistical simulation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1639-5

Lin, Y.-P., C.-L. Wang, C.-R. Chang and H.-H. Yu (2010) Using geostatistical methods to estimate nested spatial patterns and seasonal variation in the longitudinal distribution of Sicyopterus japonicus in the Datuan Stream, Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1666-2

Yu, H.-H., Y.-P. Lin*, C.-L. Wang (2010) Monitoring and estimating scale-dependent hierarchical relationships between Sicyopterus japonicus density and stream habitat features in different seasons in northern Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1867-8

Lin, Y.-P., H.-J. Chu, C.-L. Wang, H.-H. Yu and Y.-C. Wang (2009) Remote sensing data with Latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical approach to delineate landscape changes induced by large chronological physical disturbances 9(1), Sensors 148-174.

Lin, Y.-P., M.-H. Yeh, D.-P. Deng and Y.-C. Wang (2008) Geostatistical Approaches and Optimal Additional Sampling Schemes for Spatial Patterns and Future Samplings of Bird Diversity. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17, 175-188.

Lin, Y.B, Y.-P. Lin* and W.T Fang (2008) Mapping and assessing spatial multi-scale variations of birds associated with urban environments in metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. *:corresponding author 145, 209-226.

Kelly CD, Lee PF, Ding TS, and Sarkar S (2010) Biodiversity conservation in an urbanized insular landscape: identifying priority areas for bird species in Taiwan. Pacific Conservation Biology 16(1):4-19.

Ko CY, Lin RS, Ding TS, Hsieh CH, Lee PF (2009) Identifying biodiversity hotspots by predictive models: a case study using Taiwan’s endemic bird species. Zoological Studies 48(3):418-431.

Chiou CR, Hsieh CF, Wang JC, Chen MY, Liu HY, Yeh CR, Yang SZ, Chen TY, Hsia YJ, Song GZM (2009) The first national vegetation inventory in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 24:257-266.

Davies RG, Orme CDL, Storch D, Olson VA, Thomas GH, Ross SG, Ding TS, Rasmussen PC, Bennett PM, Owens IPF, Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ (2007) Topography, temperature and the global distribution of bird species richness. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274:1189-1197.

Ding TS, Yuan HW, Geng S, Koh CN, Lee PF 2006.  Macro-scale bird species richness patterns of the East Asian mainland and islands: energy, area and isolation. Journal of Biogeography 33: 683-693.

Grenyer R, Orme CDL, Jackson SF, Thomas GH, Davies RG, Davies TJ, Jones KE, Olson VA, Ridgely RS, Rasmussen PC, Ding TS, Bennett PM,  Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, Gittleman JL, Owens IPF (2006) Global distribution and conservation of rare and threatened vertebrates. Nature 444:93-96.

Orme CDL, Davies RG, Olson VA, Thomas GH, Ding TS, Rasmussen PC, Ridgely RS, Stattersfield AJ, Bennett PM, Blackburn TM, Owens IPF, Gaston KJ (2006) Global patterns of geographic range size in birds. PLoS Biology 4: e208.

Storch D, Davies RG, Zajíček S, Orme CDL, Olson VA, Thomas GH, Ding TS, Rasmussen PC, Ridgely RS, Benett PM, Blackburn TM, Owens IPF, Gaston KJ (2006) Energy, range dynamics and global species richness patterns: reconciling mid-domain effects and environmental determinants of avian diversity. Ecology Letters 9:1308-1320.

Ding TS, Yuan HW, Geng S, Lin YS, Lee PF (2005) Energy flux, body size, and density in relation to bird species richness along an elevational gradient in Taiwan. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14: 299-306.

Orme CDL, Davies RG, Burgess M, Eigenbrod F, Pickup N, Olson VA, Webster AJ, Ding TS, Rasmussen PC, Ridgely RS, Stattersfield AJ, Bennett PM, Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, Owens IPF (2005) Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat. Nature 436: 1016-1019

Chang CR, Lee PF, Bai ML, Lin TT (2006) Identifying the scale threshold for field data extrapolation via spatial analysis of landscape gradients. Ecosystems 9:200-214.

Koh CN, Lee PF, Lin RS (2006) Bird species richness patterns of northern Taiwan: primary productivity, human population density, and habitat heterogeneity. Diversity and Distribution 12:546-554.

Yu, H-L and G. Christakos (2011) “A Synthetic Method of Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity Characterization.” IEEE-Remote sensing and Geosciences 49(1), 366-376.

Yu, H-L, S-J Yang, H-J Yeh, and G. Christakos (2011) “A Spatiotemporal climate-based model of early dengue fever warning in southern Taiwan”, Stochastic Environmental Research & Risk Assessment.

Yu, H-L, C-T Chiang, S-T Lin, C-K Chang (2010) “Spatiotemporal Analysis and Mapping of Oral Cancer Risk in Changhua County (Taiwan): an application of generalized Bayesian Maximum Entropy method”,  Annals of Epidemiology 20(2), 99-107.

Yu, H-L, J-C Chen and G. Christakos (2009) “BME Estimation of Residential Exposure to Ambient PM10 and Ozone at Multiple Time-Scales”. Environmental Health Perspectives 117(4), 537-544.

Chang CR, Lee PF, Bai ML, Lin TT (2004) Predicting the geographical distribution of plant communities in complex terrain – a case study in Fushan Experimental Forest, northeastern Taiwan. Ecography 27: 577-588.

Chang CR, Lee PF, Bai ML, Lin TT. (2006) Identifying the scale thresholds for field-data extrapolation via spatial analysis of landscape gradients. Ecosystems 9(2): 200-214.

Chang CR, Li MH, Chang SD (2007) A preliminary study on the local cool-island intensity of Taipei city parks. Landscape and Urban Planning 80(4): 386-395.

Lin YP, Verburg PH, Chang CR, Chen HY, Chen MH (2009) Developing and comparing optimal and empirical land-use models for the development of an urbanized watershed forest in Taiwan. Landscape and Urban Planning 92(3-4): 242-254.

Kuo M (2003) The Theory and Practice of Sustainable Landscape Planning, Chan’s Arch Books Co., Ltd.

Kuo M (2004) The Prospect & Concept of Eco-tourism Development in Taiwan Coastal Areas, 29th Annual Conference National Association of Environmental Professionals, USA: Portland.

Kuo M ( 2005) The Reevaluation of Costal Protected Areas and The Establishment of Costal Protected Corridor in Taiwan, IUCN Commission On Protected Areas 5th Conference On Protected Areas Of East Asia, China: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Kuo M (2005) Agricultural Landscape Transformation The Conservation and Regeneration of Irrigation Pond System in TaoYuan County, Taiwan, Landscape Leading the Way 42nd IFLA World Congress, Edinburgh Scotland

Kuo M (2007) The Crisis And Rehabilitation Opportunities Of Urbanization In Urban Fringe Rural SettlementsA Case Study Of Taoyuan Region, Taiwan, the 2007 World Congress of the International Association of Landscape Ecology (IALE), the Netherlands.

K. Chang. 2011. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, 6th ed. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill).

K. Chang. 2007. Programming ArcObjects with VBA: A Task-Oriented Approach, 2nd ed. (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press).

J.G.S. Keijsers, J.M. Schoorl, K. Chang, S. Chiang, L. Claessens, and A. Veldkamp. 2011. Calibration and resolution effects on model performance for predicting shallow landslide locations in Taiwan. Accepted, Geomorphology.

S. Chiang, and K. Chang.2011. The potential impact of climate change on typhoon-triggered landslides in Taiwan, 2010-2099. Geomorphology doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.12.028

Y. Liu, and K. Chang. 2010. An analysis of Taiwan’s energy ecological efficiency and the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. Sustainable Development 18:1-11.

H. J. Geist, K. Chang, V. Etges, and J. M. Abdallah. 2009. Tobacco growers at the crossroads: towards a comparison of diversification and ecosystem impacts. Land Use Policy 26: 1066-1079.

K. Chang and S. Chiang. 2009. An integrated model for predicting rainfall-induced landslides. Geomorphology 105: 366-373.

S. Chiang, and K. Chang. 2009. Application of radar data to modeling rainfall-induced landslides. Geomorphology 103: 299-309.

J. Chen, S. Wei, K. Chang, and B. Tsai. 2007. A Comparative case study of Cultivated Land Changes in Fujian and Taiwan. Land Use Policy 24:386-395.