Renaissance Fortresses
in the Far East

The missing fortress of
La Santísima Trinidad
(Kelang, Taiwan)

By José E. Borao (National Taiwan University)


1. Renaissance Fortifications
2. Pentagonal citadels

        Rome (Italy)
        Antwerpt (Belgium)
1554 Rosas (Spain)

1592 Jaca (Spain)
1592 Pamplona (Spain)
1747 El Callao (Peru)
3. Square citadels in Europe
1548 Jülich (Germany)
1560 Spandau (Germany)
4. Square fortresses in America
1503 Santo Domingo 
1672 St. Augustin (USA)
5. Square fortresses in the Far East
1511 Malacca (Malaysia)
1571 Manila (Philippines)
1619 Batavia (Indonesia)
1620 Macao (China)
1624 Tayouan (Taiwan)
1626 Kelang (Taiwan)
1637 Zamboanga (Philippines)
1639 Cavite (Philippines)
6. Square fortresses in Taiwan
1624 Fort Zeelandia (Tayouan)
1626 La Santísima Trinidad (Kelang)

South East Asia European routes in the 1630's

The colonial expansion of the European powers along the 16th and 17th  centuries brought along with them their military fortresses, which some of them still remain in the same place, as a testimony of a former colonial past. In the case of the Spanish Imperial Routes, the farthest one was the Acapulco-Manila route, crossing the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Philippines; but, in fact, the influence of this route was extended to the presidios that Spain had in the nearby territories, like Cebu, Cavite or Zamboanga in the archipelago itself, and the ones in Terrenate (Indonesia), or in Isla Hermosa (Taiwan), in the area called Kelang (modern Jilong). In this second place the Spaniards built the small city of San Salvador, protected by the fortress Santísima Trinidad, a fortress, that will be renamed Nord-Holland, after the Dutch conquest of this territory.