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R89625005            邱峋鈞                      94 0 土肉桂與山肉桂種間嫁接之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Study on Interspecific Grafts of Cinnamomum osmophloeum and Cinnamomum insulari-montanum                                                                                                                                                                        王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林環境暨資源學研究所                            碩士     土肉桂,山肉桂,嫁接親和性,光飽和點,光補償點                                                                                                                                                                                             Cinnamomum osmophloeum,Cinnamomum insulari-montanum,graft compatibility,light saturation point,light compensation point                                                                                                         本研究利用切接及合接兩種枝接方式,以土肉桂為接穗、山肉桂為砧木進行種間嫁接,結果顯示嫁接成活率隨嫁接月份及方法有很大差異,兩種接法於3~4月時嫁接成活率最高,12~1月及5~6月嫁接成活及親和率最低,不親和徵狀則以10~12月發生率最高。
親和嫁接苗光合作用特性隨著生長期逐漸恢復正常,在3個月生時,切接、合接苗之暗呼吸率、光補償點、淨光合作用速率均不及土、山肉桂截幹苗(對照組),但至12個月生時,二者已相當接近,顯示嫁接後隨生長期延長,生理狀態逐漸恢復正常。嫁接親和及截幹苗氣孔內外二氧化碳濃度比均隨著光度增加而逐漸減少,當光度達到200μmol photon m-2 s-1 時趨緩,並固定在0.5~0.7間。親和嫁接苗之葉綠素a、b含量在接後初期提高,與截幹苗有顯著差異,但隨著生長時間增加,嫁接苗之葉綠素含量逐漸減少,至12個月生時與截幹苗已無顯著差異。合接法因切面較切接單純,因此癒傷較佳,不親和株亦較少,切接則反之。合接苗在3個月生時其外部已完全癒傷,但其輸導組織分化尚不完整,切面上仍有部份壞疽層殘留,至12個月生時輸導組織分化,已無壞疽層殘留。切接苗在3個月生時其接合部未完全癒傷,內部輸導組織亦尚未分化完全,橫切面上有明顯之壞疽層存在,至12個月生時其輸導組織雖已完全分化,但仍有部分壞疽層存在,其中部分是切穗韌皮部殘留所造成。
嫁接不親和徵狀在嫁接後陸續出現,主要為萌芽晚、生長緩慢、穗條黃化、接合部接合微弱,葉片黃化、葉脈顏色變深、葉先端枯死掉落、植株衰弱逐漸死亡等。嫁接不親和株之平均淨光合能力、暗呼吸率、葉綠素a、b及總量均明顯較其他苗木低,光補償點及光飽和點卻較高,顯示不親和嫁接苗輸導組織癒傷不完整,生理受限,植株將逐漸衰弱死亡。由切面觀察,切接不親和之壞疽層存在明顯,韌皮部組織亦明顯有扭曲及分化不良情形,合接不親和則有異常的木質部薄壁組織存在,韌皮部也分化不良。
The cut grafting method and splice grafting method were used in this study, Cinnamomum osmophloeum was used as scion and Cinnamomum insulari-montanum was used as stock in this study. The experimental results showed that the survival rate varied with the time and method of grafting, for example, from March to April, Both grafting methods had the highest survival rate; while from December to January and from May to June, both Methods yielded the lowest survival rate and compatibility; the incompatibility was highest when grafting was conducted from October to December.
For the compatibility grafts, the photosynthesis characteristics returned to normal along with growing time; when it was 3-month old, the dark respiration rate, light compensation point and net photosynthesis rate of cu grafting and splice grafting were lower than those non-grafting seedlings of both C. osmophloeum and C. insulari-montanum; until they were 12-month old, the grafts and non-graft seedling become comparable, this indicated that the extended growth and back to normal state of the physiological conditions of grafts. The CO2 ratio from inside and outside of the stomata of both the compatibility grafts and non-graft seedlings decreased with increasing light intensity, when light intensity reached 200μmol photon m-2 s-1,and become stable around 0.5~0.7. For the compatibility grafts, the contents of both chlorophyll a and b increased at beginning but decreased with growing time, and there was significant difference between compatibility grafts and non-graft seedlings; the chlorophyll contents decreased with time; and there was no significant difference between compatibility grafts and non-graft seedling when they were 12-month old. Overall, the splice grafting method yielded better healing condition and less incompatibility. The vessels of cut grafts did not show sign of differentiation and necrotic layer was obvious when they were 3-month old. After 12 months, the vessels of cut grafts were completely differentiated, however, fragments of necrotic layer still existed. On the other hand, the splice grafts healed very well when they were 3-month old, although parts of necrotic layer still remained, with partially the differentiated vascular bundles. After 12 months, the vessels were differentiated with no necrotic layer.
After grafting, the external characteristics of graft incompatibility showed gradually, which included late sprouting, slow growth, yellow leaf, weak tissue union, dark vein and withering leaf. For the incompatibility cut grafts, the necrotic layer was obvious and the phloem was twisted and incompletely differentiated. The incompatibility splice grafts also showed signs such as abnormal thin-wall xylem tissue and incompatibility phloem. On the average, incompatibility grafts were low in net photosynthesis rate, light compensation point, light saturation point and the amount of chlorophyll.
R92625026            葉旭容                      94 0 塔塔加地區三種林型土壤腐植酸之特性                                                                                                                                                                                                             Character of Soil Humic Acids at Three Forest Types in Ta-Ta-Chia Area.                                                                                                                                                                                         王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林環境暨資源學研究所                            碩士     腐植酸,土壤有機質,植生,13C-NMR                                                                                                                                                                                                  humic acid,soil organic matter,vegetation,13C-NMR                                                                                                                          不同植生條件下生成的土壤有機質組成成份仍舊不清楚。本研究目的在了解不同植生條件下,土壤腐植酸之特性差異。本研究選取塔塔加地區(Taiwan Long-Term Ecological Research, LTER)臺灣二葉松(Pinus taiwanensis Hay., Taiwan red pine, TP)、臺灣鐵杉(Tsuga chinensis var. formosana Li & Keng, Taiwan hemlock, TH)及玉山箭竹(Yushania niitakayamensis (Hay.) Keng f., Yushan cane, YC)三種不同林型下土壤進行研究,比較其土壤物理化學基本性質、土壤有機質及腐植酸等組成差異,結果顯示三種土壤酸鹼值(pH)介於 3 ~ 4 之間為強酸性土壤,由於酸性森林土壤及強烈淋洗作用造成可交換性鹽基陽離子含量極低,而土壤有機碳含量趨勢:臺灣鐵杉>臺灣二葉松>玉山箭竹。固態13C-NMR分析結果指出不同樹種新鮮植體(鮮根、嫩枝、鮮葉)有機官能基相對百分比含量不同,三種樹種均以纖維素、半纖維素為主要成分,但是,臺灣二葉松及臺灣鐵杉含較多的木質素,而玉山箭竹較少,有機官能基含量趨勢為:O-alkyl-C> alkyl-C> N-alkyl-C> acetal-C> aromatic-C> phenolic-C≈ carboxyl-C。臺灣二葉松及臺灣鐵杉Oa層纖維素及半纖維素相對含量高於玉山箭竹,在高山森林土壤裡臺灣鐵杉林型下的土壤有機質不易分解,三種林型下植體分解難易程度為(由易至難):玉山箭竹>臺灣二葉松>臺灣鐵杉。由元素分析得知臺灣二葉松及臺灣鐵杉HA具有較高的H/C值及O/C值。反之,玉山箭竹土壤有機質容易分解,玉山箭竹HA之H/C值及O/C值較低。FTIR分析結果指出不同林型下腐植酸(humic acids, HAs)有機官能基組成相對百分比含量不同,但都含有脂肪族、芳香族及多醣類結構。另外,在有機官能基相對含量趨勢上,臺灣二葉松及臺灣鐵杉均為:alkyl-C> O-aklyl-C≈ N-alkyl-C> aromatic-C> carboxyl-C> acetal-C> phenolic-C。玉山箭竹為:alkyl-C> aromatic-C> O-aklyl-C≈ N-alkyl-C> carboxyl-C> acetal-C> phenolic-C。本研究認為三種林型下土壤有機質分解難易程度(由易至難):玉山箭竹>臺灣二葉松>臺灣鐵杉。 Compositions of soil organic matter developed form various vegetations remain unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the different characteristics of humic acid from various vegetations in temperate rain forest, Ta-Ta-Chia, central Taiwan. Three forest types were selected for this study, such as Taiwan red pine (Pinus taiwanensis Hay., Taiwan red pine, TP), Taiwan hemlock (Tsuga chinensis var. formosana Li & Keng, Taiwan hemlock, TH), and Yushan cane (Yushania niitakayamensis (Hay.) Keng f., Yushan cane, YC). The soil physical and chemical properties, soil organic matters, and humic acid constituents were characterized. Soil pH ranged from 3 to 4. Low exchangeable cations caused by acidic and intense leaching of forest soils. Total organic carbon contents showed the trend as: TH > TP> YC. From CP/MAS 13C soild-state NMR analyses, the constituents of organic functional groups showed the various with respect to different plants and tissues, including fresh twigs, leaves and roots. Cellulose and semi-cellulose are the major components of plant tissues. However, the TP and TH comprise more lignin than that of YC. The contents of different functional groups in plant tissues showed the trends as follows: O-alkyl-C > alkyl-C >N-alkyl-C > acetal-C > aromatic-C > phenolic-C ≈ carboxyl-C. The Oa horizon in TP and TH contain more cellulose and semi-cellulose than that of the YC. The debris of Taiwan hemlock forest type is not that easy decompose under the alpine forest soil environments. The decomposition rate of plant tissues of three forest types showed the trends: YC > TP > TH. From elemental analyses, the humic acids fractionated from the TH and TP forest types soils contain more H/C and O/C atomic ratios (i.e., aliphatic carbon) than that of YC forest type, indicating the slow decomposition of TH and TP plant tissues. On the other hand, the YC showed low H/C and O/C atomic ratios, indicating easier decompose of YC plant tissues. From Fourier Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry analyses, the humic acids showed different aliphatic, aromatic and polysaccharide contents. From CP/MAS 13C soild-state NMR analyses of soil humic acids, the TH and TP contain more residual cellulose and semi-cellulose contents than that of YC forest types due to slow decomposition rate. The semi-quantitative of organic functional groups of the TH and TP showed the following trends: alkyl-C > O-alkyl-C ≈ N-alkyl-C > aromatic-C > carboxyl-C > acetal-C > phenolic-C, however, the YC humic acids showed the different trends: alkyl-C > aromatic-C > O-alkyl-C ≈ N-alkyl-C > carboxyl-C > acetal-C > phenolic-C. In general, we suggest that the degree of debris decomposition in three forest types are YC > TP > TH.
D86625005            朱麗萍                      94 0 牛樟、冇樟及樟樹之族群遺傳變異及相關種屬之親緣關係研究                                                                                                                                                                               Study on the population genetic of Cinnamomum kanehirae, Cinnamomum micranthum and Cinnamomum camphora and phylogeny among their related spcies                                                                                                                 王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林環境暨資源學研究所                            博士     牛樟,冇樟,樟樹,樟屬,樟科,菲律賓樟,遺傳變異,簡單序列重複,葉綠體DNA,親緣關係,分子變異數分析,族群遺傳變異分析,群團分析                                                                                                                                                                                             Cinnamomum kanehirae,Cinnamomum micranthum,Cinnamomum camphora,genus Cinnamomum,Lauraceae,Machilus philippinse,genetic variation,ISSR,cp DNA ,phytogenetics,AMOVA,POPGENE,cluster                                                                                                                          牛樟、冇樟與樟樹為樟科樟屬內形態相近的相關種,三者在空間分布上,廣狹不同。本研究用ISSR分子標誌檢測三者之族群遺傳結構,並以NTSYS進行群團分析及主成分分析並以POPGENEAMOVA軟體分析其族群結構及變方。
樟樹為廣泛分布種,樟樹台灣地區之樟樹與大陸地區之樟樹大致形成
2個群團連結,再與恆春半島地區之種源聯結,並以日本琉球地區石垣島之樟樹作為對照。變異數分析(ANOVA)。結果顯示大陸產、台灣產與日本石垣島之樟樹間變方成分為45.40%,而區域內族群間之變方成分為26.64 %,族群內個體間的變方成分為27.96%。樟樹種內的遺傳歧異度為0.2564,就族群分化係數(Gst)來看,為0.4881,基因流轉(Nm)的數值為0.5244,基因流的數值則低於1,顯見兩岸之樟樹族群間存有交流障礙。
冇樟為區域性分布種,本研究利用台灣地區之冇樟及大陸廣東地區之冇樟為材料進行分析,結果在群團分析及主成分分析上都可明顯分成
2個群聚:第1群是台灣冇樟,第2群為大陸廣東地區的冇樟。在POPGENE之遺傳距離分析上廣東地區冇樟與台灣地區之冇樟相似性係數極低在0.54450.4316之間,兩區域間之相似性係數已低於種間的相似性係數之值。台灣地區之冇樟族群族群分化係數(Gst)為0.3021,在基因流轉(Nm)的數值為1.1548,基因流的數值高於1,顯見台灣之冇樟樹族群間不存有交流障礙。將大陸種源冇樟樹和台灣種源的冇樟當作2區域進行變異數分析(AMOVA),依據區域間、區域內族群間及族群內個體間等分析三個等級之變方成分。結果大陸產之冇樟、台灣產冇樟間變方成分為56.37%,而區域內族群間之變方成分為13.19 %,族群內個體間的變方成分為30.44%
牛樟為台灣特有種,在
NTSYS軟體的群團分析及主成分分析上都可明顯分成2個群聚:1群是台灣牛樟,另1群大陸廣東地區的冇樟。在台灣牛樟族群無法區分各個族群。但台灣地區之牛樟族群的相似性係數與地理距離分布並無正相關。族群分化係數(Gst)為0.3490,基因流轉(Nm)的數值上為0.9328,基因流的數值則低於1,顯示牛樟族群間可能因近年來人為開採而導致族群減少,各族群間已有交流障礙產生。
POPGENE分析牛樟、冇樟和樟樹親緣關係,以牛樟與樟樹兩者之遺傳距離僅為0.0997來推論,印證藤田安二(1952)以精油成分分析,認為牛樟由樟樹演變而來的結果相符。cpDNA所建立的樹狀圖及距離矩陣都顯示出,本研究所使用的台灣地區之冇樟與大陸廣東地區之冇樟有著極大的差異存在。
台灣地區之樟屬植物以葉綠體
DNA中之2片段(PetD-PetBTrnS-TrnT)定序結果顯示,約略可將樟屬區分成樟組及肉桂組,其分子證據與傳統之分類處理大致符合。再以葉綠體DNA中之3個片段(PetD-PetBTrnV-TrnMTrnS-TrnT)定序結果以及Kimura’s 2-parameter distance遺傳距離顯示,菲律賓樟(Cinnamomum philippinense)應改隸為楨楠屬,學名應為菲律賓楠(Machilus philippinensis Merr.)。而酪梨屬和楨楠屬之遺傳距離較近。且在NJ法及MP法的分枝圖都將酪梨屬與靠近,但在形態上兩屬仍有很大的差異點,楨楠屬是不是應併在酪梨屬之下仍有待商榷。
未來在擬定保育方針與保育措施時,結果顯示三者的方式皆不同。牛樟為固有種,主要變異存在於族群內,高達
90%以上,而分布範圍稍大的冇樟應屬區域性分布,其主要變異成份在族群內及族群間各占約二分之ㄧ,也就是一半的變異存在族群內,另一半存在族群間。而樟樹為廣泛分布種,則其大多的變異是存在於族群間,約為族群內變異的2倍之多。樟樹應以保留多數的族群和族群內少數的單株;而冇樟則是族群數量及族群內也要有相當的數量,但是牛樟則應該保存少數族群內大量的單株。
Cinnanamomum kanehirae, C. micranthum and C. comphora are morphologically related species.  The distribution patterns of the three are different from each other, i.e. C. kanehiraeis an endemic species and confined only in Taiwan Island, where as C. micranthum regional which reaches its areas not only to Taiwan but also to southern China. C. camphora has the most widely distribution areas of the three which is native to Japan, Korea and Indochina peninsula.  The study used ISSR, cpDNA techniques to analyzed genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship of the three species as well as the other species in the family to obtain better understanding of their variation pattern and taxonomic position.
The populations of C. camphora from Taiwan and China had formed two different regins according to NTSYS cluster and PCO analyses.  Variation component of the species among the areas of Taiwan, China and Okinawa was 45.4% While among population within region 26.64% and among individual within populations 27.96%.  POPGENE analysis showed that genetic diversity of the species was 0.2564, Gst 0.4881, Nm0.5244, indicating that gene flow barrier existed in the populations.
Two distinct groups of the C. micranthum populations were identified based on the analyses of both cluster and PCO, i.e. Taiwan group and China group.  Similarity indices between the two ranged from 0.4316 to 0.5445 suggesting two groups were different from each other.  The Chinese populations had long been misidentified as C. micranthum, and need to use new epithet. Gst and Nm values of the Taiwanese populations were 0.3021, 1.1548, respectively, indicating gene exchanged among populations was freely and without any difficulty.  Variaties components of the species was as follows: between areas (Taiwan and China)56.3%, among populations within area 13.19% and among individuals within population 30.44%.
On the contrasty, there was as differentiaties among the populations of the endemic Cinnamomum kanehirae, i.e. no dististinct groups could be identified according to NTSYS cluster and PCO analyses.  Farthermore, the SI differentes among the populations of the species did not related with their geographical distances.  Nm value of the species was 0.9328(<1), suggesting gene exchange had become diffcult partly because of human disturbance.
The results of POPGENE analysis revealed that genetic distance between C. kanehirae and C camphora was only 0.0997, indicating high relationship between the two.  The data highly supported the proposed by Fujita (1952) that C. kanehirae was derived from C. camphora based on essential oil study. On the other hand, cpDNA analysis showed that the so called  ”C. micranthum” of the Guan dong origin was quite different from the species of Taiwan with the same epiphyte, suggesting the mainland “species ” was the other species rather than C. micranthum.
Non-coding segment cpDNA PetD-petB, TrnV-TrnM and TrnS-TrnT and Kimura’s 2-parameter distance were used to study the phonology of Cinnamomum philippinese and the relationship between genera Persea and Machilus.  The dendrology of both NJ and MP methods revealed that Cinnamomum philippinse was closer to Machilus than to Cinnamomum genetically.  Therefore the species was suggested to put under the genus Machilus.  The result of the same cpDNA study also indicated that Machilus and Persea were different. 
Based on the AMOVA analysis, variation patterns of C. kanehirae, C. micranthum and C. camphora were quite different.  Variation of C. kanehirae mainly exists in individuals within population, estimated more than 90%, whereas that of C. micranthum almost equally in terms of within and among populations.  The variation among the populations of C. camphora was almost 2 times of the individuals within population.  Conservation strategy for these three species is accordingly suggested to adopt different ways.
R93342012            薛夷珺                      94 0 生態旅遊的美麗與哀愁──以溪頭、梅峰、清境與草嶺為例                                                                                                                                                                                  The beauty and the sorrow of eco-tourism taking HsiTou, MeiFeng, ChingChing, and TsaoLing for examples                                                                                                                                                      王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       新聞研究所                                              碩士     生態旅遊,溪頭,梅峰,清境,草嶺                                                                                                                                                                                                   eco-tuorism,HsiTou,MeiFeng,ChingChing,TsaoLing                                                                                                                         因應台灣政府的政策,台灣各旅遊地區也逐漸以發展(或轉型為)生態旅遊為目標,以期能合理利用自然資源、維護優美環境,進而達到永續經營的終極理想境界。然而,或由於政府政策失當或由於國民環保素質低落,許多標榜為生態旅遊地區的觀光景點,漸次受到人為汙染與破壞,使該旅遊地區暴起暴落、壽命短減;儘管如此,有些歷時已久的旅遊地區卻仍能維持自身的資源與環境。究竟問題出在哪裡?本深度採訪報導便著眼於此,藉台灣少數具備永續經營潛質的生態旅遊地區來做比較,觀察生態旅遊帶來的美麗與哀愁(正負面影響),從中推測出一些端倪。
本深度採訪報導以溪頭、梅峰、清境和草嶺為採訪對象,對比探討生態旅遊在台灣發展的過程中,究竟是哪些因素影響著旅遊地區的未來
(例如生態被破壞的程度),以及在末段稍微點出生態旅遊地區要持續長久,必須仰賴哪些條件因子。研究結果發現,主導一生態旅遊地區發展起落的關鍵因素,除了管理單位嚴格的管制外,最重要的便是當地居民的向心力以及珍惜資源的決心,不為短暫利益而分裂。
以生態旅遊必須兼顧居民利益、尊重當地文化與自然環境,力求將對環境的衝擊降到最低限度等定義來看,溪頭在維護自然環境與降低旅遊對環境的衝擊力這兩方面成效斐然,然而在兼顧居民利益這點可能就必須退讓
(於是台大多次與居民協調溝通);梅峰同樣在管理方面稱強,但由於梅峰的居民多屬原住民,生態旅遊開放給原住民相當多的工作機會,管理單位與居民的利益甚少衝突,因此在這三項指標上都尚稱良好,然而梅峰亦有其天然因素(資源的豐富度)上的限制。另外,清境在這三方面皆表現不佳,自然環境破壞程度嚴重,民宿業者也多以自身利益考量而忽略當地居民的需求,是四個生態旅遊地區中較難有轉機的一個地區;草嶺則因甫從震災創傷裡站起,正值百廢待舉之機,尚須一段時間觀察,再加上其管理單位、旅館業者幾乎都是當地居民,在維護自然環境與維護居民利益上有所衝突,未來的發展端看角色扮演的拿捏與平衡。
其次,生態旅遊的美麗與哀愁也可從這些影響因子中看出端倪,一個旅遊地區要能發展,依靠的就是當地居民有保存當地清美環境與悠遠文化的自覺,進而自動自發運作,配合管理單位強而有力的管理策略,彼此之間經一再的溝通達到和諧融洽,為當地帶來長期的利益,這是生態旅遊的美麗;反之,生態旅遊的哀愁則泰半在於管理者、當地居民為求短期利益而犧牲更難得的價值,管理單位把關寬鬆、當地居民則因利益分配不均等原因而互鬥,導致內耗嚴重、削弱自然資源等困境。
 
R90625040            周宏祈                      93 0 喜樹組織培養與喜樹鹼含量之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tissue Culturesof Camptotheca acuminate Decaisne and Camptothecin contents                                                                                                                                                                                      王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林學研究所                                           碩士     喜樹,組織培養,喜樹鹼                                                                                                                                                                                                Camptotheca acuminate Decaisne,tissue cultures,camptothecin                                                                                                                     喜樹(Camptotheca acuminate Decaisne)富含camptothecin10-Hydroxycamptothecin等生物鹼成分。
以胚為培殖體誘導癒合組織結果顯示:胚在
MS基礎培養基中添加IBA 0.5mg/lBA 4mg/l Picloram 0.5mg/lKinetin 4mg/lNAA 4mg/lBA 2mg/l及單獨添加NAA 1mg/l之處理下,可以得到較佳的癒合組織生長,其中以NAA 4mg/lBA 2mg/l組合所誘導出癒合組織較為鬆軟且生長快速,可作為懸浮培養試驗的材料。在多芽體誘導方面,以MS基礎培養基添加IBA 0.5 mg/lBA 0.5mg/l的誘導效果最佳。根的誘導則以MS基礎培養基添加IBA  2 mg/l效果最佳。
利用喜樹癒合組織細胞建立懸浮培養系統,選擇
salicylic acidchitinjasmonic acidmethyl jasmonate等四種誘發劑,來探討其10-hydroxycamptothecin生產的影響。添加100μM salicylic acidMS液態培養基中,經7天培養後10-Hydroxycamptothecin產量887.5μg/g。而加入chitin懸浮3ml/25mlMS液態培養基中時,10-Hydroxycamptothecin含量可達2502.7μg/g效果較佳。另外jasmonic acid濃度為100μM10-Hydroxycamptothecin之含量可達10246μg/g,為四種誘發劑當中效果最為顯著。而當methyl jasmonate濃度為200μM時,10-Hydroxycamptothecin之含量可達3836.6μg/g
The happy tree (Camptotheca acuminate Decaisne) is one of the plants containing many alkloids, famous as camptothecin and 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

An experiment of embryo in vito was conducted to induce callus from the happy tree. The results showed that the callus grew well under all MS medium treatments of 0.5 mg/l IBA + 4 mg/l BA, 0.5 mg/l picloram + 4 mg/l kinetin, 4 mg/l NAA + 2 mg/l BA, and 1 mg/l NAA, However, the callus obtained from the treatment of 4 mg/l NAA + 2 mg/l BA was soft and facilitated to be used as a material for the suspension culture experiment. In the multiple buds induce culture, the best result was obtained on the MS medium adding 0.5 mg/l IBA + 0.5 mg/l BA. The adventitious roots occurred best on the MS medium with 2 mg/l IBA in the culture.

Four elicitor of salicylic acid, chitin, jasmonic acid and methyl jasmontate were selected to investigate 10-hydroxycamptothecin production from the happy tree using obtained callus suspension culture. The best productions of 10-hydroxycamptothecin were 887.5, 2579.5, 10246, 3836.6μg/g under the treatments of 100 μM salicylic acid, 3 ml/25ml chitin, 100 μM jasmocin acid and 200 μM methyl jasmonate, respectively, after a week incubation. Obviously, jasmonic acid has the best effect in inducing 10-hydroxycamptothecine production from the callus suspension culture.
R91625037            藍佩芬                      93 0 火燒跡地二葉松與栓皮櫟葉片之分解                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foliage Decomposition of Pinus taiwanensis and Quercus variabilis at Post-fire region                                                                                                                                                                           王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林學研究所                                           碩士     火燒跡地,二葉松,栓皮櫟,分解                                                                                                                                                                                                   Post-fire region,Pinus taiwanensis,Quercus variabilis,Decomposition                                                                                                                    本研究選擇勝光地區火燒(2002年5月11日)跡地中人工林內兩種主要樹種二葉松(Pinus taiwanensis Hayata)與栓皮櫟(Quercus variabilis Blume),利用枝葉包法研究野外葉片分解及養分的動態變化,同時比較不同埋置樣點及埋置方式。另外,採用實驗室培養方法研究不同溫度、水分及土壤對栓皮櫟及二葉松葉片分解的影響。
結果顯示,樣區中所選取之三個樣點在土壤基本理化性質上有些許的差異。海拔1830公尺之火燒跡地具有較高的pH值及鹽基陽離子,但有機質含量則較低。CPMAS 13C NMR的分析顯示各樣點中土壤之有機碳官能基極&#29234;相似,均以Aromatic-C&#29234;最多,其次&#29234;O-alkyl-C。研究中所選用的栓皮櫟及二葉松葉片基本性質具有明顯的差異,其中栓皮櫟之氮含量要高於二葉松,而二葉松之木質素含量則高於栓皮櫟。CPMAS 13C NMR分析表示出二種葉片之有機碳官能基也非常相近,均以O-alkyl-C&#29234;主,接近於40%。野外枝葉包分解法則顯示出,在不同處理的方法之下栓皮櫟與二葉松一年之分解量達到60-80%,分解半衰期&#29234;2-7個月。相同方式下,栓皮櫟分解速率快於二葉松;埋入土壤後的分解速率則快於置於地表的處理方式;1830公尺處的分解速率則低於1730公尺處。葉片分解過程中,各種養分均隨時間而損失,但損失程度各有不同,在栓皮櫟中&#29234;P>Mg>>K>Na>C>N>Ca,而在二葉松中&#29234;P>Mg>K>Ca>Na>C>N。13C NMR結果顯示,葉片在分解過程中不同的有機碳官能基基本組成不變。
實驗室的分解培養試驗則顯示,溫度、水分及土壤對落葉分解均有重要的影響。溫度從5℃升高到25℃時,栓皮櫟分解增加49 %,二葉松則增加68 %。當水分從25 %增加到40 %時,栓皮櫟分解降低60 %,二松葉降低30 %。栓皮櫟與二葉松在1730公尺處之土壤中的分解速率其顯著快於1830公尺處之土壤。落葉分解是一個受控於多重因素的過程,不同因素對分解過程的影響程度及重要性則有待更進一步的研究。
The objective of this study was to investigate the decompositions and nutrient dynamics of oak(Quercus variablilis Blume) and pine (Pinus taiwanensis Hayata) leaves in a burned site using the litterbag method. The effects of site and buried type on leaf decomposition were also conducted. In the laboratory, the impacts of incubation temperature, soil moisture and type of leaf decomposition were simultaneously considered.Results showed that soil basic physicochemical properties differed from the selected three sites. In the high elevation site, pH value and base cation contents were higher than the other sites, but low organic carbon content was observed. Soil organic carbon functional groups in all sites were similar and dominated by aromatic-C and O-alkyl-C from the results of CPMAS 13C NMR. In the leaf decomposition, oak leaf had higher N and low lignin content than those of pine. Both leaves of oak and pine comprised mainly of O-alkyl-C. According to the results in situ, oak and pine leaves decomposed 60-80% after one year and had a half decomposition time of 2 to 7 months. Results also indicated that oak leaf decomposed faster than pine leaf, leaves decomposed quickly buried in the soil and in the low elevation site. Nutrients released from the leaves during the decomposition varied with time and tree species.Laboratory incubation results showed that high temperature and low soil moisture could result in high decomposition rate of oak and pine leaves.
R90625038            吳星輝                      93 0 溪頭營林區潛在崩塌地坡面土壤特性之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                       Study on the soil characteristics of potential landslide area at Chitou Compartment                                                                                                                                                                             王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林學研究所                                           碩士     台灣杉,柳杉,崩塌地,貫入試驗                                                                                                                                                                                             Taiwania cryptomerioides Hay,Cryptomeria japonica,landslide ,standard penetration test (SPT)                                                                                                  本研究於溪頭營林區選定遭土石流嚴重破壞的大學坑之台灣杉與柳杉各設置三個樣區。於2002年7月23日及2003年7月20日分別在每個樣區之上坡段、中坡段及下坡段各取五個樣點,每個樣點採集0~15 cm、15~30 cm及30~60 cm三層不同深度之土壤,進行土壤質地、陽離子交換容量(CEC)與碳氮比測定。結果:土壤質地、陽離子交換容量(CEC)與碳氮比測定在同一年均無顯著差異。自2002年5月至2004年3月,每兩個月在每個樣區之上坡段、中坡段及下坡段各取三個樣點,進行簡易貫入試驗。結果:台灣杉林地在上坡段及中坡段之Nc值相似,但下坡段之Nc值變動則均較大。連年貫入試驗調查結果,台灣杉林地下坡段變動最大。柳杉林之孔隙度皆較同坡段之台灣杉林為高;兩林地土壤容重隨土壤深度增加而增加,而孔隙度隨土壤深度增加而減少。除了少數樣區,Nc值均與容重、孔隙度與礫石比呈現顯著相關,亦即礫石比越高,Nc值也越高;而孔隙度越高Nc值則越低。台灣杉林地中礫石重量百分比以中坡段最多,而在不同坡段不同土壤深度中礫石重量百分比,在台灣杉林地不同深度皆無顯著差異,而在柳杉林地以15-30㎝ 中最多。 Two sampling sites with severe landslide damage in Chitou Compartment were selected for this study. They were Taiwania cryptomeria stand and Cryptomeria japonica stand from Da-Shuie moat. Five sampling points were selected from each of the upper slope, middle slope and lower slope for each sampling site at July 23 2002 and July 20 2003. There was no significant difference in terms of soil texture, CEC, and C/N ratio within the same year for the soil samples collected from 0-15 cm, 15-30 am and 30-60 cm.Three sampling points were selected from each slope to conduct standard penetration test (SPT) for each sampling site from May 2002 to March 2003. The Nc values at the upper and middle slopes were similar in Cryptomeria stand, but varied a lot at the lower slope. The Nc value varied the most at the lower slope in Taiwania and Cryptomeria stands from the continuous SPT. Porosity in Cryptomeria stands is more than in Taiwania stands. The bulk density increases with soil deeper but porosity decreases with soil deeper in both stands. The percentage of gravel weight was the most at the middle slope in Taiwania and Cryptomeria stands. In terms of the percentage of gravel weight in different soil depths at different slopes in each sampling site, there was no difference in Taiwania stand, but with the greatest in 15-30 cm in Cryptomeria stand.
P90625010            葉媚媚                      93 0 金門地區林相改良成果探討                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Study of Stand Regeneration in Kinmen Island                                                                                                                                                                                                                    王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林學研究所                                           碩士     造林,木麻黃,林相改良,金門,植被                                                                                                                                                                                                   vegetation,stand improvement,Kinmen,beefwood,Afforestation                                                                                                                    本文係探討金門地區在木麻黃(Casuarina equisetifolia)造林地林相改良之成果,包括更新樹種選擇、更新方式及撫育管理等工作之探討,並於陳仔山地區設置土壤及植群調查區,進行木麻黃造林地之土壤特性調查,以及樟樹、光臘樹、木麻黃純林之植群結構,以瞭解主要造林樹種之天然更新成果。
經由土壤調查及試驗之結果,金門陳仔山地區之土壤特性方面,除土壤酸化問題及土壤之分解作用旺盛外,試驗區之土壤肥力性質尚稱良好,因此,改良試驗區之土壤酸鹼性及碳氮比,將有助於林相改良之提升。金門木麻黃造林地目前林相更新樹種以樟樹
(Cinnamomum camphora)、光臘樹(Fraxinus formosana)、楓香(Liquidambar formosana)為主,其他經濟樹種仍應繼續作試驗,在更新樹種之生長量方面,樟樹之生長情況良好,其在林相改良試驗區中,各徑級林木分配狀況良好,惟需加強人工之撫育措施。光臘樹在金門之林相改良試驗區之天然更新情況較樟樹良好,依林相更新試驗地之光臘樹與樟樹胸徑級分佈情形觀察,光臘樹較樟樹具有天然更新之潛在優勢,此外,在森林撫育方面,光臘樹之撫育工作較樟樹便利,因此光臘樹亦適合作為金門木麻黃造林地之林相改良樹種。
This study focuses on the stand improvement of beefwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) afforestation in Kinmen Islands, including selection of new tree species, regeneration of methods and fosteration of measures.
The Chen-Zai Mountain (CZM) in Kinmen was selected for field experiments, soil surveys and plant investigations. In order to study the soil characteristics correlate to beefwood afforestation in the CZM area, the vegetation structures of camphor trees (Cinnamomum camphora), Formosan ash (Frazinus formosana) and Chinese sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana) and beefwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) were also investigated to understand their nature afforestation of the stand improvements. The soil properties in the CZM area are quite acid and also show easily decomposition of soil organic matters. The soil fertility in situ was quite well. Thus, we recommend that soil pH can be added limes and applied fresh soil organic matter into soils to increase soil C/N ratios, it will promote the stand improvements. The major stand improvements in Kinmen Island include camphor trees, Formosan ash and Chinese sweet gum. The other economic trees are also recommended to continuing their afforestation of field experiments. On the other hand, the growth quantities of regeneration of camphor trees are growth quite well in good conditions, however, the different diameter levels in the other stands show quite well but it is still needed to enhance fostering measurements. The natural regeneration of Formosan ash stand improvement of field experiments was better than that of camphor trees. According to the diameter of breast height (DBH) distribution of those two trees, the Formosan ash possesses highly potentials of natural regeneration. Formosan ash is a better tree, which is easily to foster than that of camphor tree. Thus, we recommend that Formosan ash is a suitable tree to replace beefwood as a new stand improvement tree in Kinmen Islands.
R91625042            林梓銘                      93 0 日本女貞之微體繁殖                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Micropropagation of Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林學研究所                                           碩士     微體繁殖,癒合組織,日本女貞                                                                                                                                                                                             callus,micropropagation,Ligustrum japonicum  Thunb.                                                                                                      本試驗嘗試探討並建立日本女貞其組織培養之微體繁殖體系。初步結果如下:
本試驗以日本女貞之成熟種子為培植體進行培養。將成熟種子先以流水處理24小時,先以1%安其消毒液浸泡20分鐘做表面清潔,再以70%之酒精浸泡5分鐘,最後在5% NaOCl水溶液(含約0.1%(v/v)Tween20展著劑)中超音波震盪30分鐘,種子可達100%之無污染率。
在器官形成方面:種子與成熟胚植於WPM、1/2MS、MS三種基礎培養基中以WPM對於無菌苗之誘導效果最好。以胚軸為培植體,以WPM為基礎培養基在光照環境下,添加0.5 ppm 之2,4-D培養,可獲得大量淡黃色、鬆軟之癒合組織。以無菌苗之頂芽為培植體,以WPM為基礎培養基在光照環境下,可順利發根。無菌苗之頂芽,在含有0.01 ppm IBA及1 ppm BA 之WPM培養基中,光照環境下可誘導出多芽體。誘導出之多芽體以WPM空白培養基在光度20±5μmol m-2s-1時,抽長效果較好。日本女貞細胞液態培養以0.1 ppm 2,4-D配合10 g/l 蔗糖之WPM培養基最為適當。
This study describes the development conditions and the propagation technique by in vitro culture for the Ligustrum japonicum  Thunb. The primary results are as follow:
Results of mature seeds culture of Ligustrum japonicum were as follows: mature seeds were first treated with running water for 24 hours, soaked in 1﹪anticeptol solution(Benzel thyonium chloride U.S.P 10﹪(w/v), Allcyl arylpolyther alcohol 10﹪(w/v))for 20 minutes, then soaked in 70﹪ethanol solution for 5 minutes, then soaked in 5﹪NaOCl(supplemented with 0.1﹪(v/v) Tween 20)and treated with ultrasonic shaker for 30 minutes and the seeds could get the 100﹪non- contamination.
The medium of WPM get the best results to establish sterile plants. Light yellow and soft calli were induced after hypocotyls were cultured on WPM medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D under light containing. Rooting was induced after terminal buds were cultured on WPM medium under light containing. Multiple shoots were induced after terminal buds were cultured on WPM medium containing 0.01 ppm IBA and 1 ppm BA under light containing. Multiple buds when transferred to WPM medium lacking plant growth regulators were promoted to elongate their length of internodes under light intensity of 20±5μmol m-2s-1 light environment. The optimal medium for suspension culture was WPM added with 0.1 ppm 2,4-D and 10g/l sucrose of WPM medium.
R91625035            蔡國書                      93 0 臺灣扁柏與大葉桉組織培養與玻璃質化法超低溫保存之研究                                                                                                                                                                                  Studies on Cryopreservation and Tissue Culture of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana and Eucalyptus robusta by Vitrification Technique.                                                                                                                        王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林學研究所                                           碩士     玻璃質化法,台灣扁柏,大葉桉,超低溫保存                                                                                                                                                                                          Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana,Eucalyptus robusta,Cryopreservation,Vitrification                                                                                                                    本試驗以台灣扁柏Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana與大葉桉Eucalyptus robusta 的芽體與懸浮培養細胞為材料,利用玻璃質化法進行超低溫保存之研究,並檢測PVS2的毒性、LN(loading solution)試驗及不同濃度的PVS2處理,以找出最佳的配方與處理方式,提高冰凍後細胞之活力。
大葉桉以
MS培養基添加0.5ppm BA1ppm NAA誘導多芽體,單一芽體平均產生10個芽,並以5ppm 2,4-D誘導癒合組織得到最佳結果;台灣扁柏以WPM培養基添加0.5-1 ppm BA時多芽體誘導率最高,以NAA 5ppm誘導癒合組織得到最佳結果。
將大葉桉懸浮細胞浸置
PVS2溶液15分鐘以上會使活性降低至35%以下,但台灣扁柏懸浮細胞浸置30分鐘以上卻依然有60%以上的細胞活力;LN(loading solution)試驗則可降低PVS2對其懸浮細胞的毒性,使細胞活性經PVS2處理15分鐘後仍維持將近60%的活性。
先以
50PVS2處理大葉桉懸浮細胞5分鐘,再以100PVS2處理10分鐘,細胞活力可以高達68%,並能誘導出癒合組織生長,而芽體經50PVS2處理60分鐘再以100PVS2處理60分鐘,可使細胞活力高達82%。而臺灣扁柏多芽體先以50PVS2處理,再以100PVS2處理60分鐘,細胞活力可以高達76%,並有33%的芽體能誘導出癒合組織。
This study try to use cryopreservation by vitrification technique to experiment on Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana and Eucalyptus robusta buds and suspension cell culture. Then we test PVS2 toxicity、LS(loading solution) test and different concentration of PVS2 to find out the best formula to enhance of the cell viability after freezed.
The best result to induce buds of Eucalyptus robusta in MS medium with 0.5 ppm BA was to use 1 ppm NAA. The results showed that single bud could most effectly induce 10 buds and to induce callus with 5 ppm 2,4-D. And the best results to induce buds of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana in WPM medium with 0.5-1 ppm BA. And callus induction were to use 5 ppm NAA.
The Eucalyptus robusta suspension culture cell load in PVS2 solution over 15 minutes will decrease cell viability below 35%, but the Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana suspension culture cell load in PVS2 solution will still preserve cell viability over 60% after 30 minutes. The Eucalyptus robusta suspension culture cell can preserve about 60% viability of cell by LS(loading solution) test and to decrease PVS2 toxicity by soaking in PVS2 solution after 15 minutes.
Take Eucalyptus robusta suspension culture cell with 50%PVS2 solution after 5 minutes and then with 100%PVS2 after 10 minutes will preserve the viability of cell over 68% and to induce the growth of callus. Take Eucalyptus robusta buds with 50%PVS2 solution after 60 minutes and then with 100%PVS2 after 60 minutes will preserve the viability of cell over 82%. Take Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana buds with 50%PVS2 solution after 60 minutes and then with 100%PVS2 after 60 minutes will preserve the viability of cell over 76% and make 33%buds induce callus.
R91625036            蔡志明                      92 0 空氣污染微粒在植物表面之沈降與脫離                                                                                                                                                                                                             Deposition and Removal of Air Pollution Particles on Plant surfaces                                                                                                                                                                                             王亞男                      ,孫岩章                       臺灣大學                                       森林學研究所                                           碩士     淋洗效率,接觸角,葉面積,滯塵效率                                                                                                                                                                                             rain-cleaning efficiency,dust-catching efficiency,contact angle,leaf area                                                                                                                        本研究研發已利用電腦掃描器,進行葉片面積之量測工具。主要係掃描葉片成圖檔,利用圖片中的像素與程式軟體計算掃瞄後的葉面積值,發現此種方法可快速獲得精確的葉面積值。
另已設計揚塵器及揚塵箱利用人工揚塵箱測試13種樹種葉片之滯塵效率,結果發現龍柏之滯塵效率為最高、其次為木麻黃、羅漢松。另發現在固定風向條件下懸浮微粒會依慣性作用而積聚葉緣地方,又比較13種樹種發現一般葉面積小之樹種滯塵量較葉面積大者為高,而一般經噴濕後滯塵量皆比乾者為大。
本研究另經測試
6種植物乾及濕枝條之滯塵效率,所用微粒包括有塵土及水泥微粒。結果顯示濕枝條的滯塵量一般皆比乾枝條多,且枝條在噴濕潤後不易乾燥者如正榕及楓香會具有較大的滯塵量。
經設計均勻揚塵箱及人工降雨淋洗箱後,本研究已模擬並量測降雨對
7種植物葉表四種微粒之淋洗效率,結果發現除了艷紫荊葉表水泥比塵土微粒淋洗效率大之外,其他6種植物葉表各微粒之淋洗效率依次排列為塵土>水泥>燃煤飛灰>燃油飛灰。
各種受測之植物之水滴接觸角皆被量測,以探討接觸角和滯塵效率及降雨淋洗效率間的相關性,結果發現
10種葉片的水滴接觸角對葉表塵土之相關性R20.6658,而與水泥間之R20.76687種葉片的水滴接觸角對葉表燃煤飛灰之相關性R20.6117,此三項顯示呈現高度相關性,但對燃油飛灰間之R20.0283顯示接觸角與之無相關性。
A computer scanner method was developed to measure the leaf area in this study. This method calcutated the leaf area by counting total dot numbers on each scanned map of leaves. 
In order to evaluate the dust catching efficiency of plant leaves, a dust chamber was designed and a dust generator were used to produce dust for the experiments. The dust catching efficiency of 13 tree species were determined in the chamber. Results showed that Juniperus chinensis var. Kaizuka had the best efficiency, followed by were Casuarina equisetifolia and Podocarpus costalis. We found that the amount of particulate matters was usually highest at the edge of each leaf due to inertia function. The species with smaller leaf area usually have higher dust-catching efficiency as compared with those larger leaf area. Wet leaves have higher dust catching efficiency as compared with dry leaves.
The dust-catching efficiency of plant stems was also determined for 6 species. Both dust and cement particulate were used in this study. Results showed that wet stems have higher dust-catching efficiency as compared with dry stems. Wet stems (eg. Ficus microcarpa and Liquidambar formosana)which are difficult to be dry usually have higher dust deposition as compared with the others.
Rain-cleaning efficiencies of soil dust, cement dust, coal-fired fly ash and oil-fired fly ash on 7 plant leaves were compared in a simulated rain chamber. The rain-cleaning efficiency of cement dust on Bauhinia blakeana is higher than those of soil dust. While the 6 plants showed their rain-cleaning efficiency of all particles in the descending order as dust >cement>coal-fire fly ash>oil-fire fly ash.
The contact angles between water droplet and leaf surface were measured with an instrument . These contact angles were compared with dust-catching efficiencies, as well as rain-cleaning efficiency. The R2 between contact angle and the rain-cleaning efficiency of dust for 10 species wsa 0.6658. For cement, the R2 is 0.7668 . For coal-fired fly ash particles in 7 species, the R2 is 0.6117. Results show that they are closes related. But oil-fired fly ash particles, R2 is 0.0283, did not show strong correlation relationship.
R91625038            王薇                         92 0 利用土壤有機質中δ13C值探討勝光地區植群之改變                                                                                                                                                                                               Vegetation Changes in Sheng-Guang Area
using δ13C Values of Soil Organic Matter                                                                                                                                                                              
王亞男                       臺灣大學                                       森林學研究所                                           碩士     土壤有機質,植群演替,δ13C,森林火災                                                                                                                                                                                             vegetation chang,soil organic matter,13C value                                                                                                                        在自然環境下,森林生態常會受到人為因子直接的擾動與破壞,或是自然因素的干擾,進而造成植群變遷並改變森林的各項弁遄A或影響原有生態系的演進。本研究之目的即選擇發生火燒之試驗地,利用土壤有機質(SOM)中天然碳同位素豐度(abundance),來研究過去至現在植群間的變化,瞭解此生態系的擾動情形。本研究之取樣時間為20037月,於勝光地區採集林火區試驗地及未發生火災之對照區試驗地之土壤及植物樣本,取樣時記錄樣區之環境資料,如方位、高度、坡度及植生。樣本取回後,將土壤樣本風乾過篩,分析各項基本理化性質、土壤礦物組成、有機碳官能基分布,及有機質中之穩定性碳同位素。植體則將其烘乾磨碎後,分析有機碳官能基分布,以及植體中之穩定性碳同位素。結果顯示,研究區呈現一高度淋洗的狀態,土壤呈強酸性,唯火燒後,因灰份的加入,使土壤之pH值相對較高。土壤礦物組成顯示樣區中土壤礦物以蛭石、高嶺石及伊萊石為主,並含有伊萊石-蛭石的混層礦物,及少量的綠泥石。植體和土壤中之有機碳官能基種類主要為烷基碳(alkyl-C)、含氮烷基碳(N-alkyl-C)、含氧烷基碳(O-alkyl-C)、乙縮醛碳(acetal-C)、芳香基碳(aromatic-C)、羧基碳(carboxyl-C)與酚基碳(phenolic-C)等七種,且皆以含氧烷基碳所佔比例為最高。由於C3型植物的δ13C值範圍在-32~ -20 &#8240;之間,而C4植物介於-17~ -9 &#8240;之間,故藉由δ13C值的分析,可明確地分辨出研究區中土壤有機質的來源,並利用垂直剖面SOM δ13C值的分佈,進而推測剖面形成過程中,植群結構組成的改變。在未燃燒之臺灣二葉松林樣區中,表層SOM δ13C值為-21.87 &#8240;,而下層皆約為-18 &#8240;,顯示過去高山芒的數量可能較現在多,但植群的種類無多大改變。在火燒後之臺灣二葉松林中,土壤樣體之δ13C值較接近未燃燒混合林中較深層土壤樣體的δ13C值,約介於-24.32~ -23.75 &#8240; 之間,故在火災發生前,此地區亦含有其他C3種類的植物,或植群組成與現在的混合林相似。未燃燒混合林土壤樣體表層0~10 cm處的δ13C值,為所有土壤樣體中負值最大(-26.96 &#8240;),顯示近期地表之植群以C3種類的植物為多,含有較多之灌木類及闊葉樹種。在火燒後混合林土壤樣體中,植群種類變動較大,以前森林植物即C3型植物較多,但卻一度增加釵h的草原即C 4型植物,最後又再逐漸被森林所取代,充分顯示此區曾因外來因素而發生擾動,進而改變植物的組成。上述結果表明,應用δ13C技術可以描示出各樣區中優勢樹種、植群組成之變動,並進而推論試驗地中過去遭受擾動之情形。 Forest ecosystems may be interfered and damaged directly or indirectly by human and nature factors that result in changes of plant vegetation, forest function and ecosystem evolution. The objective of this study was to understand the plant vegetation change and disturbance suffered of forests using carbon isotope ��13C abundance of soil organic matter (SOM) in soil profile. The study area was located at Sheng-Guang region. Soil and plant samples were collected on July, 2003 from the burned pine, burned mixed forest, pine control and mixed forest control zones, respectively. During the sampling, these environmental conditions such as location, altitude, slope and vegetation of sample points were recorded. Soil samples were air-dried in the laboratory and passed through 2 mm sieve for analysis of soil physico-chemical properties, soil mineralogical compositions, functional group compositions and isotope ��13C abundance in SOM. Plant samples were oven-dried at 60�aC and ground for assays of carbon functional group and ��13C abundance. High leaching potentials are present in the forest zones with low soil pH, while in the burned zones soil pH is higher due to the mixture of burned ashes compared with the unburned zones. In the soil mineralogical compositions, vermiculite, kaolin and illite were found as the main types with mixed-layered clays in soil samples. The ��13C-NMR analysis indicated that functional groups, including alkyl-C, N-alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, acetal-C, aromatic-C, carboxyl-C and phenolic-C are present in plant and SOM. The O-alkyl-C functional group was the major component. Values of ��13C in SOM were corresponding to the sources of plant vegetation. Generally, the abundances of ��13C of C3 and C4 range from –32 to -20 &#8240; and from –17 to -9 &#8240;, respectively. Hence, the change of plant vegetation could be inferred by the values of SOM ��13C in soil profile. In the unburned pine (Pinus taiwanensis Hayata) zone, ��13C of SOM  in the surface horizon was –21.87 &#8240; and approximate –18 &#8240; in the bottom horizon, indicating that plant types had no great change but abundance of silvergrass (Miscanthus transmorrisonensis) exist in the record. In the burned pine zone, the values of ��13C were in the range of –24.32~ -23.75 &#8240; that was similar to the unburned mixed forest, indicating similar plant vegetation as current mixed forest exist before the recent burning. The values of ��13C of SOM in the mixed forest was the lowest of –26.96 &#8240; in 0-10 cm soil depth, suggesting that more C3 plants included forest and bushes were present in this zone. However, in the burned mixed forest zone, results of ��13C values indicated that C3 plant had been dominated in this zone, C4 plant communities increased at some time and then decreased. Such a process in the burned mixed forest zone fully elucidated that external factor once disturbed the evolution of the forest ecosystem. Hence, the ��13C value can be used successfully in understanding of the vegetation dynamics and disturbances suffered of each site in the history.
R86625056            駱月雲                      91 2003 土肉桂不同冠層位置二氧化碳固定效益之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study on Carbon Dioxide Fixation Efficiency at Different Canopy Layers ofCinnamomum osmophlaeum                                                                                                                                                                 王亞男教授                 國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     土肉桂,淨光合作用速率,中午抑制,葉溫,光度                                                                                                                                                                                                Cinnamomum osmophlacum , net photosynthetic rate  middy depression , PAR , leaf temperature。                                   選擇四年生土肉桂為試驗材料,每月分別測定上下層陽葉與蔭葉淨光合作用速率、蒸散作用速率、氣孔導度三項生理因子,以及光合作用有效光輻射、葉溫、氣溫、相對濕度、二氧化碳濃度等環境因子的日變化。藉以探討土肉桂不同冠層陽葉、蔭葉的光合作用與環境及生理因子之相關性及其主要影響因子,並進而推估全年葉部CO2固定量。
一年生盆苗在控制環境皕鬚c內蒸氣壓差維持
1KPa以內,葉溫27-28℃時,測得土肉桂光飽和點約為600-700 &micro;mol m-2s-1,最大淨光合作用速率為7.2 &micro;mol m-2s-1。而在野外土肉桂成木,淨光合作用速率上層陽葉為5.22 &micro;mol m-2s-1,上層蔭葉為3.10 &micro;mol m-2s-1,下層陽葉為3.92 &micro;mol m-2s-1,下層蔭葉為2.51 &micro;mol m-2s-1。經成對樣本T檢定顯示,上下層陽葉與蔭葉間及上下層陽葉間,多數測定日,環境因子及淨光合作用速率及蒸散作用速率均差異顯著,但上下層蔭葉間則差異不顯著。光度與葉溫為多數測定日影響陽葉光合作用的主要因子,而光度多為蔭葉光合作用的主要影響因子。在晴朗炎熱的天候,上層陽葉淨光合作用速率日變化有明顯的中午抑制現象而呈雙峰趨勢。
累計一日
9小時土肉桂陽葉平均每平方公尺面積可固定6.52 g CO2,蔭葉為4.01 g CO2
The efficiency of carbon dioxide fixation of Cinnamomum osmophlacum Kaneh was analyzed by measuring net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance rate and other environmental factor in this study in the field monthly.
           Effects of temperature , light, CO2, vapor pressure deficit(VPD) on photosynthetic rates of Cinnamamum osmophlacum Kaneh leaves were investigated on photosynthetic characteristics by portable photosynthetic system and self-organized environmental control system. When VPD was below 1.0KPa in ambient CO2 concentration light saturation point is 600-700&micro;molm-2s-1.  Maximum Pn was about 7.2 &micro;molm-2s-1 under light intensity above 600 &micro;molm-2s-1, leaf temperature between 27-28℃.
           In the field , the upper sun-leaf average net photosynthetic rate was 5.22 &micro;molm-2s-1. For the upper shadow-leaf, the lower sun-leaf and the lower shadow-leaf , they are 3.10, 3.92, 2.51 &micro;molm-2s-1 respectively
           According to the result of paired t-test analysis, it has significantly difference between the sun-leaf and the shadow-leaf and between the upper and lower canopy layer of the sun-leaf in photosynthesis, transpiration and environmental factors, but is not between the upper and lower canopy layer of shadow-leaf. PAR and leaf temperature are the major influence factors of sun-leaf and PAR is the major influence factor of shadow -leaf in photosynthesis in many experiment days. Under sunny and hot day, diurnal changes showed two peaks with middy depression for the upper sun-leaf.
           The CO2 fixation efficiency in 9 hours during the daytime that of sun-leaf of Cinnamomum osmophlacum Kaneh was 6.52 g m-2s-1, and that of shadow-leaf was 4.01g m-2s-1.
R89625035            吳宗賢                      91 2003 毛柿之體胚發生及發育                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Somatic Embryogenesis and Development of Diospyros discolor                                                                                                                                                                                                     王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     毛柿,體胚,體胚發生                                                                                                                                                                                             Diospyros discolor,somatic embryo,embryogenesis                                                                                                                    毛柿成熟胚培養於MS培養基可促使胚發芽,外加生長節劑則會抑制發芽作用。成熟胚培養於添加0.10.5 ppm 2,4-DMS培養基,胚軸具膨脹反應,將膨脹之胚軸繼代培養於添加0.3%w/v)活性炭之MS培養基,可誘導直接體胚與間接體胚發生。
毛柿成熟胚之胚軸培養於添加
0.1 ppm 2,4-D0.2%(w/vPVPMS培養基可誘導直接體胚發生,培養於添加活性炭之MS培養基則無反應。0.1 ppm TDZ0.1 ppm 2,4-D之組合較單獨使用2,4-D可獲得較高之體胚發生率,BA2,4-D之組合較單獨使用2,4-D並無顯著效果。
毛柿體胚發生需培養於光照環境,黑暗環境雖亦有體胚發生現象,但效果較培養於光照環境差。誘導體胚發生所需之蔗糖濃度為
3%w/v)或4%w/v),蔗糖濃度過低或過高皆不利毛柿體胚發生。
毛柿成熟胚之胚軸培養於修飾過之
MS培養基,以KNO3濃度為28.2 mMNH4NO3濃度為10.3 mMNO3-/NH4+比值為3.7,可得最佳體胚誘發效果,將發展至球形階段之體胚培養於分化用之空白培養基,MS培養基氮濃度減半具促進體胚發芽之作用,維持原氮濃度,體胚可發芽、發根及胚軸伸長,提高氮濃度至原MS培養基之3/2倍,可促進體胚胚軸伸長。
           Mature embryos of Diospyros discolor could germinate on hormone-free MS medium. Germination of mature embryos inhibited by exogenous plant growth regulators. While mature embryos cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 and 0.5 ppm 2,4-D, hypocotyls began to swell. Swelled hypocotyls subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.3%(w/v)activated charcoal, direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis occurred.
            Hypocotyls of matured embryos of Diospyros discolor cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 ppm 2,4-D and 0.2%(w/v)PVP could obtain direct somatic embryogenesis. Explants had no response while hypocotyls cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 ppm and activated charcoal. In order to obtain high frequency of somatic embryogenesis, we culture hypocotyls of mature embryo of Diospyros discolor on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 ppm 2,4-D and 0.1 ppm TDZ. The result of somatic embryogenesis of medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BA was the same as medium only supplemented with 2,4-D.
            Although somatic embryogenesis of Diospyros discolor could occurred in the dark culture, the frequency of somatic embryogenesis was lower than culture in the 16 hr light photoperiod. The optimal concentration of sucrose used to somatic embryogenesis of Diospyros discolor was 3 and 4 %(w/v).It didn’t suited somatic embryogenesis while concentration of sucrose was too low or too high.
           In order to understand nutrient necessary of somatic embryos development, hypocotyls of mature embryos of Diospyros Discolor cultured on modify MS medium. High frequency somatic embryogenesis could obtain while explants cultured on modify MS medium with 28.2 mM KNO3 and 10.3 mM NH4NO3,3.7 NO3-/NH4+. Globular embryos subcultured on hormone-free modify MS medium for development.     In 1/2 nitrogen strength MS medium, germination of somatic embryos occurred. Germination, rooting and elongation of somatic embryos were gained in normal nitrogen strength MS medium. In 3/2 nitrogen strength MS medium, somatic embryos could elongate.
R89625031            黃鈺婷                      91 2003 DNA分子標誌應用於台灣五葉松之遺傳歧異度分析                                                                                                                                                                                                 Genetic diversity of Pinus morrisonicola Hayata based on DNA markers                                                                                                                                                                                            王亞男                      ,王裕文                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     台灣五葉松,遺傳歧異度,RAPD,AFLP                                                                                                                                                                                                     Pinus morrisonicola,genetic diversity,RAPD                                                                                                                            ,AFLP                                                                                                                             台灣五葉松 (Pinus morrisonicola Hayata) 為台灣特有的針葉樹種。本研究利用RAPD分子標誌來估算台灣五葉松天然族群之遺傳變異及遺傳結構,以10個逢機引子分析169個樣本,其中包括華山松與台灣二葉松兩個近源物種。台灣五葉松平均族群遺傳歧異度 (Hs)0.20AMOVA分析得到Φst值為0.146,說明台灣五葉松族群有適度的分化現象。在族群遺傳結構方面,AMOVA分析顯示出遺傳歧異度主要是存在族群內,而非族群間,族群間遺傳歧異度佔總遺傳歧異度的比例為14.61﹪。
分析台灣五葉松北、中、南地區共十一個族群,所得之遺傳距離樹狀圖顯示出族群的群叢現象與地理位置有關聯性存在,主要可劃分成兩個類群,惠蓀林場、秀巒、谷關與大坑頭嵙山、南橫、多納、鳳崗山、扇平族群之間的遺傳距離近,劃為第一類群。第二類群為為三峽五寮尖、石碇皇帝殿及筆架山族群。
AFLP部分,四對引子組合共獲得119個標誌,只有9個多型性標誌,根據這些多型性標誌估算台灣五葉松九個天然族群之平均歧異度(Hs)為0.088。台灣五葉松族群歧異度低,表示其基因組的相似度高,許多引子組合無法獲得多型性的AFLP標誌,如果能使用更多的引子組合做篩選,或許能有機會找到更大量的多型性。
 
P90625008            劉秀卿                      91 2003 行道樹水黃皮與黑板樹二氧化碳固定效益之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                 Study on Carbon Dioxide Fixation Efficiency of sidewalk trees Cytisus pinnatus and Alstonia scholaris.                                                                                                                                                          王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     水黃皮,黑板樹,二氧化碳,淨光合作用速率,氣孔導度,蒸散速率                                                                                                                                                                                             Cytisus pinnatus,Alstonia scholaris,Carbon Dioxide,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance rate,transpiration rate                                                                                                               本研究係選擇位於台灣北部桃園縣桃園市通往高速公路主要幹道國際路二段之行道樹水黃皮(Cytisus pinnatus)及文中路之行道樹黑板樹(Alstonia scholaris)為試驗材料,每月選擇兩天,在晴天且自八時至下午四時於戶外進行淨光合作用速率、氣孔導度、蒸散速率及其他環境因子之試驗,將所得之各項數據分析以探討二種樹種對二氧化碳固定效益,以提供日後規畫行道樹參考之用。 In this study, Cytisus pinnatus on Kuo-Ji Road, a mainline from Tao Yuan(a city in northern Taiwan)to Chung Shan freeway, and Alstonia scholaris on Wen-Chung road were selected.
            The Carbon Dioxide fixation efficiency, which will be a reference for sidewalk trees planning afterward, was analyzed by measuring net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance rate and other environmental factor outdoor from 8 am to 4 pm, two sunny days a month.
R88625036            李衛宗                      90 2002 青剛櫟組織培養二次代謝產物之探討                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Secondary Metabolites from Tissue Cultures of Cyclobalanopsis glauca                                                                                                                                                                                        王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     青剛櫟,二次代謝物,癒合組織                                                                                                                                                                                             Cyclobalanopsis glauca,secondary metabolites,callus,catechin                                                                                                                         本試驗以青剛櫟(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)未成熟胚之培植體為材料。將未成熟種子去除其基部的殼斗後,先以稀釋500倍的安期消毒劑清洗10分鐘,再以70%酒精浸泡5分鐘,最後以5 NaOCl水溶液(含約1%(v/vTween20展著劑)為消毒劑,在超音波震盪15分鐘,剖開種子取未成熟胚進行無菌培養,在黑暗的培養環境下,癒合組織誘導率較高,平均為91.17 ﹪,其中以植物生長調節劑濃度為1 mg/l2,4-D誘導率最高,達到94.52 ﹪。在黑暗中培養40天之癒合組織,其重量平均增加8.79倍,其中又以0.5 mg/l2,4-D處理較高,增加17.97倍。
36個試驗細胞株樣品中,5種預定目標成分中僅檢測出(+)-catechin (-)-epicatechin 2種成分,(+)-gallocatechin(-)-epigallocatchinrutin則沒有發現。每1公克新鮮癒合組織細胞內平均含有186.21μg(+)-catechin54.28μg(-)-epicatechin
Immature embryos of Cyclobalanopsis glauca were as explants in this experiment. When immature embryos were transferred into MS medium in the dark, average induction rate 91.17﹪was observed and the highest induction rate 94.52﹪of all treatments was the medium with 1 mg/l 2,4-D. When the callus was cultured in the dark for 40 days, average double rate was 8.79 and the highest double rate(17.97)was observed in the medium with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D.
           Among thirty-six callus cell samples, five desirable compounds((+)- catechin、(-)-epicatechin、(+)-gallocatechin、(-)-epigallocatechin、rutin), there were only two of them((+)- catechin and (-)-epicatechin). There were detected 186.21μg (+)-catechin and 54.28μg (-)-epicatechin per one gram fresh callus cell.
R89625040            江凱楹                      90 2002 溪頭地區三種植生下根圈與本體土壤理化性質之分析                                                                                                                                                                                           Physical and chemical properties, and distribution of metal species in rhizosphere and bulk soils of three plantations at Chi-Tou region                                                                                                                        王亞男                      ,王明光                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     根圈土壤,連續性抽取法,溪頭                                                                                                                                                                                                   rhizosphere soil,mutiple-step extraction,Chi-Tou                                                                                                                          本研究將以一個較微觀的焦點,來看林木與土壤在養分循環的關係,特別將焦點放在「根圈」這個區域中。本實驗在溪頭營林區進行,除了使用一般的分析方法來分析土壤基本性質之外,並採用連續性抽取法(multiple-step extraction)來分析根圈土壤與本體土壤,以了解其差異性。
結果顯示根圈土壤的
pH值低於本體土壤、陽離子交換容量大於本體土壤;粒徑分析上根圈土壤的質地較粗;有機碳、氮的含量以根圈土壤較高,但是碳氮比並無差異。
根圈土壤中金屬離子的生物有效性含量大致比本體土壤高。土壤中的金屬形態分佈每一種金屬都不同,但在根圈土壤與本體土壤的比較下,根圈土壤以有機質的鍵結形態比例較多,本體土壤以非有機質鍵結的比例較高。
This research was emphasied on the microscale to study the relationship between tree species and nutrient cycle, particularly focused on the rhizosphere soils. The miltiple-step extraction method was employed to differentiate the different soil properties between bulk and rhizosphere soils.
           pH and cation exchange capacity(CEC)of rhizosphere soils are usually lower and greater than bulk soils. On the other hand, the particle size of rhizosphere soils are coarser than bulk soils, respectively. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents of rhizosphere soils are greater than bulk soils. However, the C/N ratio show no significant differences between rhizosphere and bulk soils.
           The contents of bioavailable metals in rhizosphere soils are greater than that of bulk soils. The fractionations of each metal showed different distribution. Organic-bound metal showed high concentration in rhizosphere soils. However, the bulk soils contain more in inorganic-bound metals than rhizosphere soils.
R89625033            廖述惠                      90 2002 樟樹與台灣櫸於林下栽植二氧化碳固定效益之研究                                                                                                                                                                                              Study on Carbon Dioxide Fixation Efficiency of Cinnamomum camphora and Zelkova serrata in understory planting                                                                                                                                                   王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     二氧化碳,淨光合作用速率,樟樹,台灣櫸                                                                                                                                                                                                carbon dioxide,net photosynthetic rate,Cinnamomum camphora,Zelkova serrata                                                                                                                  研究選擇台灣中北部苗栗農工和興林場林下栽植之三年生樟樹(Cinnamomum camphora)與台灣櫸(Zelkova serrata)為試驗材料,自905月至914月每月分別測定上層葉及下層葉淨光合作用速率、蒸散速率、氣孔導度三項生理因子,以及光合作用有效輻射、葉溫、相對濕度、二氧化碳濃度等環境因子的日變化,藉以探討林下栽植之樟樹與台灣櫸對二氧化碳的固定效益。
 12個測定日測得樟樹之日平均淨光合作用速率在上層葉為5.06μmol m-2s-1,下層葉為2.48μmol m-2s-1。台灣櫸上層葉為3.87μmol m-2s-1,下層葉為1.67μmol m-2s-1。累計一日9小時樟樹上層葉平均每平方公尺葉面積可固定7.21 g CO2,下層葉為3.54 g;台灣櫸則每平方公尺葉面積可固定5.52g CO2,下層葉為2.38 g
In this study, Cinnamomum camphora and Zelkova serrata in understory planting of the experimental forest of National Miao-Li Agricultural and Industrial Vocational High School were selected,  The efficiency of carbon dioxide fixation was analyzed by  measuring net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance rate and other environmental factor in the field monthly.
           The results of investigation of Cinnamomum camphora were:the upper-leaf average net photosynthetic rate was 5.06 μmolm-2s-1 ;the lower-leaf average net photosynthetic rate is 2.48 μmolm-2s-1. The results of investigation of Zelkova serrata were :the upper-leaf average net photosynthetic rate was 3.87 μmolm-2s-1, the lower-leaf was 1.67 μmolm-2s-1.
           For estimating the CO2 fixation efficiency in 9 hours during the daytime, that of upper-leaf of camphora tree was 7.21 g m-2d-1,and that of lower-leaf of camphora tree was 3.54 g m-2d-1 ;that of  upper-leaf of Zelkova was 5.52 g m-2d-1 ,and that of upper-leaf was 2.38 g m-2d-1.
R87625032            杜大治                      90 2002 溪頭地區檜木、柳杉和孟宗竹的根圈與本體土壤低分子量有機酸與碳-13核磁共振光譜之分析                                                                                                                                        Low molecular weight organic acids and 13C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy analyses of Chamaecyparis formosensis, Cryptomeria japonica and Phyllostachys pubescens, Rhizosphere and Bulk Soils at Chi-Tou Region.                                                 王亞男教授                ,王明光教授                 國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     根圈土壤,本體土壤                                                                                                                                                                                             rhizosphere soil,bulk soil                                                                                                                        根圈是指土壤的微生物相(microflora)被植物的根影響的區域。植物在生長期間有能力能改變或限制根域的性質。植物根的影響主要是經由有機與無機物質釋放進入土壤的根域。植物的種類、根分泌的有機物質和養分吸收型態等,都會引發根圈土壤性質的改變,進而改變了根圈養分的動態,對於植物的生長也產生了影響。本研究以國立台灣大學農學院實驗林溪頭營林區檜木林(Chamaecyparis formosensis)、柳杉林(Cryptomeria japonica)和孟宗竹林(Phyllostachys pubescens)作為試驗對象,比較根圈土壤與本體土壤的基本物理化學性質(如pH值、陽離子交換容量、土壤質地、有機碳和含氮總量等)。並利用氣相層析儀及固態核磁共振光譜法,分析檜木、柳杉和孟宗竹植體低分子量有機酸的含量和差異,土壤有機質碳組成分布,根圈土壤與本體土壤間低分子量有機酸的含量和差異,以及根圈環境對於土壤有機質碳組成分布的影響。
研究結果顯示,在基本物理化學性質方面,三種植生下的根圈土壤
pH值皆低於本體土壤,而陽離子交換容量、黏粒含量、有機碳和總氮含量皆較本體土壤高。在植物體低分子量有機酸含量方面,草酸的含量,以孟宗竹根部最高,柳杉根部最低。丙二酸含量,以檜木枝葉最高,孟宗竹根部最低。琥珀酸的含量,在植體方面,以檜木枝葉最高,以柳杉根部最低。就土壤而言,低分子量有機酸含量趨勢為:孟宗竹根圈土壤 檜木根圈土壤>柳杉根圈土壤 本體土壤,並且其間有顯著的差異性存在。在有機碳官能基的分布方面,烷基碳以孟宗竹根圈土壤所佔的比例最高,本體土壤最低;含氮烷基碳、含氧烷基碳和羧基碳分別以本體土壤、檜木和柳杉根圈土壤和孟宗竹根圈土壤所佔的比例最低,酚基碳以本體土壤所佔的比例最高,在其餘三種土壤間則無差異性存在;乙縮醛碳和芳香基碳的分布比例,在四種土壤間並無差異性存在。綜觀上述結果,根圈中的物理化學性質會隨著植生狀況的不同而有所改變。
           Rhizospere is the activity zone nearly plant root. The species of plants, root exudates, and the uptake pattern of nutrients influence the soil properties in rhizosphere, consequently dynamic of nutrients, and the plant growth. The study site was lacated at a typical mountain forest where Chamaecyparis formosensis, Cryptomeria japonica and Phyllostachys pubescens grows at Chi-Tou Region. We compared the physicochemical properties, such as pH value, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil texture, organic carbon, the total nitrogen content. The content of the low-molecular-weight organic acids in rhizosphere and bulk soils was measured with gas chromatography. The distribution of functional group of organic carbon in the soils was determined with solid state nuclear magnetic resonance.
               The results of basic soil physicochemical properties showed that, the pH value of rhizosphere soils were lower than the bulk soil. The CEC, clay content, and the amount of organic carbon and total nitrogen in rhizosphere soils are higher than those of bulk soils. The amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids showed the highest oxalic, succinic, malonic and fumaric acids, in the Phyllostachys pubescens rhizosphere soil and the lowest in the bulk soil. In general, the amount of low-molecular-weight organic acid showed as follows: Phyllostachys pubescens rhizosphere soil > Chamaecyparis formosensis rhizosphere soil > Cryptomeria japonica rhizosphere soil > bulk soil in these species. The functional groups of organic carbon showed, the highest percentage of alkyl-C in the Cryptomeria japonica rhizosphere soil and lowest in bulk soil. The percentage of N-alkyl-C were the lowest in the bulk soil. However, the O-alkyl-C and carboxylic-C were showed the lowest percentage in the Chamaecyparis formosensis rhizosphere soil. The highest percentage of phenolic-C is present in bulk soil, but the rhizosphere soil of the three species showed significant difference. The percentage oa acetal-C and aromatic-C were not significantly difference among the all soils. It was concluded that the properties of rhizosphere soils changed with the plant species.
R87625008            洪儷文                      90 2002 樟樹不同冠層位置之光合作用淨生產力                                                                                                                                                                                                             Net Photosynthetic Productivity at Different Canopy Layers of Cinnamomum camphora                                                                                                                                                                               王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     淨光合作用速率,蒸散作用速率,葉溫,光度,一日碳收穫量                                                                                                                                                                                       net photosynthesis rate,transpiration rate,leaf temperature,photon flux density,dinural carbon gain                                                                                                              本試驗主要目的在獲得樟樹的光合作用與環境及生理因子之相關性及其主要影響因子,並進一步獲得全年葉部生產力的資料。
經成對樣本T檢定法及逐步迴歸法分析後,陽葉與蔭葉間無論是環境因子或光合作用及蒸散作用均差異顯著,但樹冠上層與下層間則無顯著差異。在光合作用的影響因子方面,經多元逐步迴歸分析後發現,所有季節中光度為影響光合作用的主要因子。對陽葉而言,光度與葉溫為多數日子中光合作用的主要影響因子;對蔭葉而言,大多數日子裡只有葉溫為主要影響因子。試驗中也發現每日上午九時的瞬間光合作用速率與當日碳收穫量有顯著相關性。
另外在樟樹光合作用年生產量的推估方面,本試驗的樟樹總葉片面積為
124 m2,其中陽葉葉片面積佔30%,蔭葉葉片面積佔70%,全株一年約可固定234㎏的二氧化碳,其中陽葉貢獻54%,蔭葉貢獻46%
The main purpose of this experiment was to study the correlation between photosynthesis of camphor tree, environment and physiology factors, and other major effect factors.  Furthermore, to obtain the annual leaf productivity data.
           The statistical data of this experiment was analyzed by pair-sampled T-test and proceed regression models.  The results showed that there were big differences between sun-grown leaves and shade-grown leaves with effect of environment, photosynthesis or transpiration factors. However, there was no difference between the upper and lower crown of trees with effect of environment, photosynthesis or transpiration factors. In terms of photosynthesis factor,  the proceed regression model analysis showed that the photon flux density is the major factor to photosynthesis in all seasons. For sun-grown leaves, the photon flux density and leaf temperature were main influential factors to photosynthesis most of the time.  For shade-grown leaves, only leaf temperature was the major influential factor to photosynthesis. The experiment also discovered there were high correlation between the speed of photosynthesis at 9 o’clock every mornings and diurnal carbon gains.
           In addition to the estimation of annual phtosynthetic productivity, among the total area of 124 m2 of camphor leaves containing 30% of sun-grown leaves and 70% of shade-grown leaves in this experiment, 234 kg of Carbon Dioxide can be stabilized per year, among all, sun-grown leaves contributes 54% and shade-grown leaves contributes the other 46%.
P89625010            魏展斌                      90 2002 千年桐林下之烏心石台灣櫸栽植                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Planting Zelkova serreata and Michelia compressa under Aleurites montana stands                                                                                                                                                                                 王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     林下栽植                                                                                                                                                                                             planting under stands                                                                                                            本研究以苗栗農工和興實習林場之30年生千年桐人工林下,面積1.5公頃為試驗地,依不同林分密度處理為皆伐區(相對光度100﹪)、密林區(相對光度25﹪)及疏伐區(相對光度47﹪),以CRD試驗設計栽植原生闊葉樹種台灣櫸及烏心石,以建造複層林,進行綜合檢測以明瞭不同林分密度進行複層林建造時,不同微環境條件對造林木生長所造成的影響。
因林分遭受人為撫育作業及自然干擾(颱風)等綜合擾動之後,森林環境與林地生產力有所變動,致影響植被之演替及造林木之生長狀況,本研究即對微環境因子如光合作用光量子密度、氣溫、土壤溫度及土壤水勢等加以監測,以明瞭不同微環境下氣候因子之變化,及對各造林幼木之成活及生長量之影響,俾於未來林下栽植時做為經營決策之參考。初期試驗結果,一年生台灣櫸在皆伐區平均苗高淨生長
61.19±9.57cm/yr,淨基徑生長4.5±2.90cm/yr;在密林區內苗高淨生長47.32±7.42cm/yr,淨基徑生長2.06 ±1.76cm/yr;在疏伐區苗高淨生長42.14±7.47cm/yr,基徑生長2.27±1.79cm/yr ;成活率經轉換為角度植後各處理間沒有顯著差異,平均成活率達96.6%。烏心石在皆伐區平均苗高淨生長18.75±8.78cm/yr,淨基徑生長2.02±2.16mm/yr;在密林區淨苗高生長17.58±8.92cm/yr,淨基徑生長1.92±1.50mm/y;在疏伐區(相對光度47%)內淨苗高生長16.72±7.58cm/yr,淨基徑生長2.21±1.88mm/yr;各處理間平均成活率達93.98%
千年桐林分在不同育林處理下,各處理間之森林土壤,有機質含量、及交換性鈣、鎂、鉀、有效性磷等土壤肥力均屬良好等級,因林地平均坡度
26°及納莉颱風帶來豪雨導致森林土壤養分淋洗而流失,致各處理間土壤養分無顯著差異。林地經過一年之人為及自然干擾後植群種類由原來88種增加至140種,迅速成長達1.6倍,林下栽植撫育作業需要繼續加強撫育(除草),方能建造複層林。
This research focused on the 30 years old Aleurites Montana of plantation forests and conducted at the experimental forest of National Miao-Li Agricultural and Industrieal Vocational High School. The area of the experimental station is 1.5 hectares. There are separated into three experimental treatments, such as clearcutting (100% of relative light intensity), closed stand (25% of relative light intensity), and thinning stand (47% of relative light intensity). In order to build up a multi-stories forest according to CRB design, native species of hardwood Zelkova serrata and Michelia compressa were planted under Aleurities Montana. The objective of this study was to investigate the microenvironments affected the forest growth under multi-storied forests at different intensity of stands.
                 The forest environments and forestry productivity affected by artificial tending operation and natural interference (i.e., typhoon). Therefore, the status of the regeneration of vegetation and forestry growth were influenced by the following environmental factors. These environmental factors included light intensity of photosynthesis, air and soil temperatures, and water potentials. We were monitoring those factors and trying to investigate the different environmental factors of climate change influence the seedlings of plantation, growth, and productivity. These parameters will be used as a reference of a strategy and management of next plantation.
                 In the preliminary tests, the average of plantation growth height and basil diameter of Zelkova serrata seedlings were 61.19 (±9.57) cm yr-1, and 4.5 (±2.90) mm yr-1, respectively at clearcutting district. However, at closed stand and thinning districts of seedling growth height and basil diameter were 47.32 (±7.42) cm yr-1, 2.06 (±1.76) mm yr-1; 42.14 (±7.47) cm yr-1 and 2.27 (±1.79) mm yr-1 with respect to Zelkova serrata. The average of seedlings growth was above 96.6% and show no significant differences with different treatments. On the other hand, the average growth height and basil diameter of Michelia compressa at clearcutting, closed stand and thinning districts were 18.75 (+8.78) cm/yr-1, 1.92 (±1.50) mm yr-1; 17.58 (±8.92) cm yr-1, 1.92 (±1.88) mm yr-1; and 16.72 (±7.58) cm yr-1, and 2.21 (±1.88) mm yr-1. The average of seedling growth was around 93.98%.
                 At different treatments of Aleurites Montana silviculture, organic matter contents, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and available phosphorus were classified as an upper level grade of soil fertility. The soil erosion was occurred owing the Nali typhoon of high precipitation and caused the loss of forest soil nutrients. Hence, there was no significant differences of soil nutrients at different treatments. The species of vegetations increased from 88 to 140 after a year''s of artificial and natural interferences, and grown about 1.6 times. Therefore, this research concluded and suggested that the tending operation under forestry plantation need to enhance the tending (i.e., weeding) in order to build multi-storied forest.
R88625041            韓謝忱                      90 2002 泡桐轉殖系統之建立                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     王亞男                      ,葉開溫                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     泡桐,轉殖                                                                                                                                                                                                   paulownia fortunei,transgenic                                                                                                                       泡桐(Paulownia fortunei)是速生的經濟樹種, 由於其具有材質重量輕, 抵抗腐敗, 不易變形, 以及多用途; 例如: 供作樂器用材, 高級家具用材等等。 所以成為森林農業的一項重要資產。 泡桐的再生系統已建立完成, 可以快速穩定的獲取大量轉殖苗木, 只需將有益處的基因轉殖進入泡桐中並且獲得芽體, 就可以利用微體繁殖系統大量再生目標轉殖苗木以供森林農業上使用。 或是轉殖多種基因以改良泡桐性狀!
本論文建構抗蟲基因
---sweet potato sporamin 基因於雙向載體pBI121轉型進入農桿菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)菌株: LBA4404中, CaMV 35S 啟動子(promoter) 持續表現sporamin蛋白質基因轉殖進入泡桐; 以使泡桐具有胰蛋白酵素抑制因子所提供之抗蟲能力。 本試驗也建立了完整的泡桐再生與轉殖系統, 利用抗生素kanamycin30ppm為初步的篩選標誌(selection marker) 用以選殖轉型成功的泡桐培植體, 所得之再生芽體再以PCR(polymerase chain reaction)反應, 快速確認轉殖泡桐基因組(genomic DNA)中是否有sporamin基因片段的插入(insertion)
經由
PCR篩選出具有訊號的植株後, 必須進一步經過南方氏墨點法檢測(southern blot analysis) 雜合反應後在X-ray film上可以見到明顯的訊號而野生型未轉殖之泡桐中則不具有此一訊號, 為了解轉殖泡桐是否能順利表現sporamin基因的mRNA 採用北方氏墨點法(northern blot)鑑定, 結果顯示轉殖株內之sporamin片段可以順利表現mRNA在轉錄層次上並無問題。 由於葉開溫教授實驗室已建立一完整之胰蛋白酵素活性染色檢測(trypsin inhibitor activity staining)方法, 故依照其方法檢測得知, 轉殖株TP1, TP2, TP5, TP6能夠表現具有活性之sporamin蛋白質, 且在西方式墨點法上也可得到相同結論。 顯示轉殖株為一具有sporamin基因表現的穩定轉殖株。 但是TP3, TP4可能是在轉譯層次上發生基因靜默(gene silencing)
           Paulownia wood has been well utilized due to it’s light weight, rot resistance and free of warping. The fast growth rate of Paulownia may be capitalized upon for agroforestry. Paulownia fortunei is readily propagated through regeneration, transformed clonal lines could be bulked up from single shoots transformed with interest gene.
           In this report, we introduce the insect resistance gene, sporamin into Paulownia fortunei under 35S promoter control.  The sporamin cDNA gene was constructed in a binary vector pBI121 at BamHI site, and then transformed Paulownia fortunei mediated by Agrobacterium tumerfaciens LBA4404.We also established the regeneration system and transformation system for transgenic Paulownia. Further used to transform the different tissue of Paulownia fortunei that selected by selection medium (kanamycin 30ppm), Twelve transgenic plantlets of them were analyzed by PCR analysis and Northern blot analysis.
           However, sporamin protein gene expression was investigated only in TP1, TP2, TP5, TP6, transgenic lines, but not in TP3, TP4, and TP6 after Western blot and trypsin inhibitory activity staining analysis. It suggested that a gene silencing might occur at the translational level in some transformants.
R87625007            林建良                      89 2001 利用RAPD分子標誌研究臺灣山毛櫸之族群變異                                                                                                                                                                                                      Studying the Population Genetic Variation of Taiwan Beech (Fagus hayatae) by RAPD Marker.                                                                                                                                                                       王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     臺灣山毛櫸,逢機擴增多形性DNA,族群遺傳變異                                                                                                                                                                                       Fagus hayatae,RAPD,population genetic variation                                                                                                     臺灣山毛櫸(Fagus hayatae Palib. ex Hayata)是法定珍稀植物之一,目前臺灣地區僅在插天山自然保留區及銅山地區有發現,本實驗以逢機擴增多形性DNA (RAPD)分子標誌技術探討族群的變異性,在北插天山取一個樣區,銅山地區則選取三個樣區,每樣區逢機選取25株樣本,共100株樣本,使用610-mer的人工合成逢機序列引子,共得到108條擴增片段,其中98(90.74%)為多形性片段,10(9.26%)為單形性片段,相似性分析的結果顯示銅山地區的75株樣本間的平均相似度為0.547,北插天山族群的25株樣本間則為0.651,顯示兩族群內的變異頗高。POPGENE分析則顯示平均族群總變異(Ht)0.1951,平均族群內變異(Hs)0.1756,平均族群差異性(Gst)0.1001,意謂族群間的變異僅佔總變異的10.01%,主要的變異存在於族群內單株間,族群的分化則不明顯。            Taiwan beech (Fagus hayatae Palib. ex Hayata), one of the rare plants in Taiwan, can be found only in Chatienshan Nature Reserve and Tongshan area. This study attempts to study the population variation by RAPD molecular marker. Total 100 samples were collected from one plot of Peichatienshan and three plots of Tongshan (25 samples from each plots). Six arbitrary sequenced 10-mer primers were used in this study and 108 DNA fragments were recorded. Among them, 98 fragments were polymorphic (90.74%) and 10 fragments were monomorphic (9.26%). Average similarity coefficient for 75 samples of Tongshan population and 25 samples of Peichatienshan population were 0.547 and 0.651 respectively, guessing high variation within populations. POPGENE software analysis showed that averaged total population genetic diversity (Ht) was 0.1951, averaged genetic diversity within population was 0.1756, and Gst index was 0.1001, indicating that the major variation existed within population and population genetic differentiation was not significant.
D84625005            林敏宜                      89 2001 利用細胞懸浮培養進行紅檜體胚誘導及臺灣扁柏人工種子研製                                                                                                                                                                               Studies on somatic embryo induction from cell suspension culture of Chamaecyparis formosensis and artificial seed production of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana                                                                                             王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           博士     紅檜,臺灣扁柏,體胚,人工種子                                                                                                                                                                                             Chamaecyparis formosensis,Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana,somatic embryo,artificial seed                                                                                                                  將紅檜未成熟胚播種在WPMWoody plant medium)修正培養基添加3mg/l 2,4-D0.5mg/l BA,在黑暗中培養。經過1個月後,誘導到黃白色、濕軟之癒合組織進行懸浮細胞培養,經過生長曲線測試及光學顯微鏡觀察後取得生長最旺盛及具有體胚分化能力之細胞1g放入含WPM修正培養液50ml250ml 三角錐形瓶放大培養,接著取 20 g之懸浮培養細胞,移入2L攪拌通氣式之生物反應器,內含1.2L WPM 修正培養液+ABA之培養液。培養中持續通氣及攪拌,經過2個月後可得到心型、魚雷型期體胚,再將體胚置入固體培養基促使其成熟
以誘導出臺灣扁柏芽體、紅檜體胚為材料,將其與
3 % Sodium alginate放入漏斗中均勻攪拌,使其滴落於 25mM CaCl2.2H2O中,1分鐘之內可製造出130顆以上之人工種苗,其中約有60顆為成功之人工種苗,另有一半為空粒。將其播種在無菌培養基中,具有72.6%發芽率及59.2%的發根率。以臺灣扁柏莖頂、芽體為材料,市售之藥用褐色透明膠囊製作膠囊型人工種子,其發芽率為53.6 %,發根率達25.6%
Callus tissue of Chamaecyparis formosensis was initiated from immature embryos, which was inoculated in solid medium ( WPM modified medium ) supplemented with 3mg/l 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/l BA, and then the cultures were incubated in the dark. After 1 month, white and soft embryogenic tissues of C. formosensis were formed and to proceed on suspension cell culture. An inoculure of 1g cells possesses embryogenic patented  into a 250ml flask for culture ampification after esta blishment of  cell growth curve and demonstratian microcopically of cell optics microscope tested of vigor and somatic embryo differentiation. Transfering a quantify of 20g cells into a 2L aerated - stirred bioreactor, containing 1.2 L medium ( WPM ) with abscisic acid. For initiating bioreactor application, therefore continuous good aeration as well as agitation for Culture were aerated and agitation were used for mixing cells. After differentiated 2 months, heart stage, and subsequent torpedo stage somatic embryos were. For somatic-embryo maturation, the somatic embryos were inoculated onto WPM solid medium containing after bioreactor culture.
           C. obtusa var. formosana were mixed thoroughly in funnel, dripped into 25 mM calcium chloride solution, a total of 130 artificial seeds were produced in one minutes with apoportian of 60% survival, others were failure or empty. A rate of 72.6% and 59.2% of germination and rooting percentage were obtained respectively in sterile sowing conduction. The pharmaceutical capsules were used as protective materials to produce artificial seeds with the tips and buds of C. obtusa var. formosana in capsule artificial seed in capsule declined germination percentage to 53.6% and rooting percentage to 25.6% .
                     黃文俊                      88 2000 台灣東北部六種闊葉樹種樹冠層二氧化碳固定功能之研究                                                                                                                                                                                     The Effects of CO2 Fixation in the Canopy of Six Broad-leaved Tree Species in Northeast Taiwan                                                                                                                                                                  王亞男教授                 國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     二氧化碳減量,淨光合作用速率,蒸散作用速率,氣孔導度,光合作用有效輻射量                                                                                                                                                                              Carbon Dioxide Absorption,Net photosynthesis rate,Transpiration rate,Stomatal Conductance rate,Photosynthetically active radiation                                                                                              福山植物園與棲蘭林區位於宜蘭縣境內,屬於亞熱帶重濕型氣候區,乾濕季不明顯,全年不缺水。試驗樹種選取具代表該區之6種闊葉樹種,分為常綠與落葉2類闊葉樹;常綠闊葉樹4種包括樟科之厚殼桂(Cryptocarya chinensus)、長葉木薑子(Litsea acuminata)與胡桃科之黃杞(Engelhardtia roxburghiana )、殼斗科之鋸葉長尾栲(Castanopsis carlesii ),落葉闊葉樹2種包括台灣@樹(Sassafras randaiense)與柿樹科之山紅柿(Diospyros morrisiana )等。測定野外晴天下之葉片淨光合成率,並分析與各項因子間之相關性。另外選取厚殼桂、長葉木薑子、黃杞等31年生盆栽苗木,在控制環境下於同化箱內進行氣體交換特性對不同光度之反應試驗。
供試樹種其淨光合成率與光合作用光子流量密度
(PhAR )在測試當日時之日變化相近,6種供試樹種之葉片光合成率與氣孔導度以鋸葉長尾栲最大。長葉木薑子最小。各樹種季節變化以休眠季節最小,而生長季節差異性較大。山紅柿、黃杞與長葉木薑子光飽和點以山紅柿較高(500-700 umol.m-2.s-1)其次是黃杞(400-500 umol.m-2.s-1),長葉木薑子最低(300-400 umol.m-2.s-1)。
日淨光合作用率台灣@樹與鋸葉長尾栲的光合作用潛能相近,
10月份晝間台灣@樹8.5個小時與鋸葉長尾栲6.5個小時每平方公尺葉面積分別可以固定5.595.81克的CO2。日蒸散量台灣@樹與鋸葉長尾栲則相近,10月份白天台灣@樹8.5個小時與鋸葉長尾栲6.5個小時每平方公尺葉面積分別可蒸散487460克的H2O
This study was conducted at the Fu-Shan plant garden and the Chilian Shan, Ilan County, both within the subtropical regime and with high humidity year round.  Six most common broad-leaved tree species including four evergreen Crypticarya chinensus, Listsea acuminata, Engelhardtia roxburghiana and Castanopsiscarlesii, and two deciduous Sassafras randaiense and Diospyros morrisiana were chosen to study the carbon dioxide absorption reaction.
           CI-301 photosynthesis system instrument was used to measure the net photosynthesis rate for each tree species.  The relationship between transpiration rate and stomata conductance rate were analyzed monthly from September 1998 to September 1999.  One year seedlings from three tree species were also selected to measure gas exchange properties to PhAR response in assimilation boxes under an environmental-controlled laboratory.
           Daily patterns of the net photosynthesis rate in response to PhAR were similar for all tested species.  However, the net photosynthesis rates were significantly different for all tested species. The Castanopsis carlesii had the highest net photosynthesis rate, and the Listsea acuminata had the lowest.  Seasonal courses of photosynthesis capacity were significantly different between all tested species.
                Castanopsis and Sassafras had similar photosynthesis capacity, which were 5.59 g CO2/m2 in 8.5 hours and 11.7 g CO2/m2 in 6.5 hours, respectively.  The transpiration rate of these two species (487 g H2O / m2 in 8.5 hours and 460 g H2O / m2 in 6.5 hours, respectively) were not significantly different.
R87625038            賀立行                      88 2000 宜蘭銅山地區山毛櫸林土壤動物之初步研究                                                                                                                                                                                                       Preliminary Study on Soil Animals of Fagus Forest                                                                                                                                                                                                               王亞男 教授               ,姜家華 教授                國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     土壤動物,食物網,山毛櫸                                                                                                                                                                                                Soil animal,food web,Fagus hayatae                                                                                                                    本研究主要探討宜蘭縣銅山地區山毛櫸林內土壤動物種類組成及物種多樣性、優勢族群數量變動及不同季節土壤動物組成及數量之異同,且初步探討土壤動物數量在季節變動及其土壤因子、微氣候因子間的關係,並通過食性分析,初步擬出土壤動物食物網的架構。本研究樣區設立在山毛櫸林內,調查時間從西元1999年5月正式開始到2000年3月為止,每2-3個月(以季節為單位)調查土壤動物一次,採隨機取樣方式進行調查。共採集到232個樣本,其中包括108個乾烘土樣(Tullgren漏斗集蟲法)、108個濕烘土樣(Baermann漏斗集蟲法)、以及16個手挑土樣。共記錄大、中小型土壤動物共2447個,其中大型土壤動物共捕獲1189隻,中、小型土壤動物共1258隻,分屬3門7綱14目20科。銅山地區山毛櫸林土壤動物屬於溫帶森林土壤動物類型,調查土壤動物之優勢類群(個體數佔總體數的10%以上)包括線蟲類、蜱p類及雙翅類,分別佔全捕量的33.92%,13.2%以及29.7%;合計共佔總捕量的76.82%,顯示線蟲類、蜱p類及雙翅類為銅山山毛櫸林土壤動物群落之主要組成。其他常見類群則包括蚯蚓類佔4.54%、彈尾類佔6.38%、鞘翅類佔3.56%、膜翅類佔5.72%,常見類群共佔總捕量的20.2%左右。土壤動物在土層中垂直分佈上以0-10cm土層土壤動物量遠大於10-20cm及20-30cm的土層,而10-20cm和20-30cm的土層間土壤動物數量則沒有顯著差異。土壤動物群落多樣性上大型土壤動物略高於中、小型土壤動物,但差距極小。在山毛櫸林中土壤動物與氣候因子及土壤因子的相關性方面,發現土壤動物數量與氣候因子及土壤因子間雖具某種程度的關連,但都不顯著;由於銅山山毛櫸樣地在地形分析上發現,其分佈在陡峭之山坡,是否因為地形之緣故造成相關性低的結果有待更深入之研究。本研究經由土壤動物數量及組成的調查分析,並對常見類群的食性通過觀察及文獻查閱,擬初步建構該地區土壤動物食物網,包括以土壤動物取食基本食源範圍而定的食物網即以土壤動物相互關係為基礎的食物網。 The object of this study was deal with the soil animal composition, diversity, quantity variation of dominant species in the fagus forest of Tong-shan area and difference in soil animal composition and quantity under four seasons. Through the food resources analysis and preliminary construction food chain, in order to provide fundamental data of material cycle and energy research in Tong-shan area, the study sites were established in the stand of fagus. We observed the data in each month started from May 1999 to March 2000. Total of 232 samples were collected, including 108 dry soil animal samples, 108 wet soil animal samples and 16 macrofauna samples(divided by hand with naked eye). Total of 2447 soil animals were recorded including macrofauna, middlefauna and microfauna which belongs to 3 phyla, 7 classes, 14 orders, 20 families. According to the previous study, the soil animals in Tong-shan area belongs to the warm-temperature rain forest soil animal type. The result shows the order of soil animal number and group: Dominant species including Nematoda, Acarina and Diptera. Other major species including Oligochaeta opisthopora, Collembola, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, the trend of verticle distribution of soil animal number: 0-5cm > 10-20cm and 20-30cm layer, but the 10-20cm and 20-30cm is almost the same. Soil animal diversity index of large soil animal a few large then med.and min. soil animal. In the study, there is shown correlation between quantitative of soil animal had some correlation with microclimate and soil physiochemical properties,  but not significant.
           This study recorded the soil animal group in fagus forest of Tong-shan area. In order to know practical observation and paper reviews had been done the habit of some of specific soil animal group. Through preliminary construction of soil animal food web in Tong-shan area were done, including food web range based on the food resources of soil animal and food web based on the observed interaction of the soil animal.
R87625034            陳建璋                      88 2000 地理資訊系統技術於造林地管理之應用                                                                                                                                                                                                             Application of GIS Technique on the Management of Plantation Land                                                                                                                                                                                               王亞男                      ,邱祈榮                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     造林地管理,地理資訊系統                                                                                                                                                                                       GIS,Plantation land,Land management                                                                                                                  本研究以地理資訊系統為工具,臺大實驗林溪頭營林區為研究範圍,以該地區各種圖籍資料及造林台帳資料,探討造林地資料庫之建構與造林地界範圍界定之技術。研究作業上,先數化造林地圖成數位式影像資料,再配合相片基本圖、林班界圖檔將數位式造林地影像檔予以定位。研究過程中發現,定位後之造林地影像圖精度不足,無法作為判釋造林地邊界之依據,但可供作造林地大致位置之參考。在造林地邊界之判釋上,主要仰賴相片基本圖或航空照片來之輔助邊界之判釋。研究結果顯示,此種作業方法,在可接受精度範圍內,迅速達成造林地數位建檔之工作,再進一步結合屬性資料,即可建置一造林地地理資訊系統資料庫。
造林地地理資訊資料庫建構之技術,除了提供經營者有系統的林地管理資訊外,並可結合土地專家系統或模式系統,以提供造林地資訊﹔對於利用航照影像來輔助造林地界判釋方面,由結果可發現該種技術之應用有相當大之助益。
The Chitou district of Experiment Forest, National Taiwan University was selected as this study area. We collected all kinds of maps and the plantation data of this area. The Geographic Information System (GIS) technology was a tool used to combine all the data in this study.  A new procedure of image registering technique was developed to integrate the plantation maps into GIS database. We scanned the plantation map into a digital image map. We registered based on the photo base map and digital compartment map. The digital plantation map was registered into the same coordinate system with the base map. After registering the plantation maps, we found that the points of transform were too rough to delineate the plantation boundary. However the registered plantation map could be used to locate assist compare approximately the position of plantation land. Finally, the photo base maps and aerial-photo were used to assist delineate the boundary of plantation. The results indicated that based on this procedure to digitize the plantation land was more precise, and accomplish the purpose speedily.
R86625041            成寧                         88 2000 台灣鐵杉之組織培養                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Tissue Culture of Tsuga chinensis var. formosana                                                                                                                                                                                                                王亞男教授                 國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     台灣鐵杉,組織培養,MS培養基,SH培養基,不定芽,癒合組織,BA,TDZ                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tsuga chinensis var. formosana,tissue culture,MS,SH,adventitious buds,callus,BA,TDZ                                                                                                                              本試驗以臺灣鐵杉(Tsuga chinensis (Franchet) Pritz. ex Diels var. formosana (Hayata) Li & Keng)之成熟胚為培植體進行培養。將成熟種子先以流水處理48小時,再以70%酒精浸泡兩分鐘,最後在5% NaOCl水溶液(含約1% (v/v) Tween20展著劑)中超音波震盪20分鐘,可達零污染率。取成熟胚進行培養,在添加0.1% (v/v) EM-X溶液之培養基培養可大幅提高發芽率。以MS為基礎培養基在黑暗的環境下,添加1ppm BA及2ppm 2,4-D培養,可獲得大量淡褐色、鬆軟之癒合組織。以MS培養基在光照環境下,添加0.1ppm TDZ培養可促進幼苗生長。以SH培養基培養,無論添加BA、TDZ或BA與2,4-D之組合,皆可獲得不定芽。在黑暗的環境下,BA與2,4-D則可誘導出白色堅硬的癒合組織。將具不定芽之培植體移往不含生長調節劑1/2 SH培養基,以含活性炭與不含活性炭的培養基交互培養,可得小植株。 Results of mature embryo culture of Tsuga chinensis (Franchet) Pritz. ex Diels var. formosana (Hayata) Li & Keng were as follows: mature seeds were first treated with running water for 48 hours, then soaked in 70% ethanol solution for 2 minutes. Soaked in 5%NaOCl (supplemented with 1% (v/v) Tween 20) and treated with ultrasonic shaker for 20 minutes. The medium containing 0.1% (v/v) EM-X could promote germination ratio of mature embryos. Light brown and soft calli were induced after mature embryos were cultured on MS medium containing 1 ppm BA and 2 ppm 2,4-D under dark condition. Mature embryos grew better in MS medium containing 0.1ppm TDZ under light condition. Adventitious buds formed on SH medium containing BA or TDZ or BA with 2,4-D.  Under dark condition, white and compact calli were induced in SH medium containing BA and 2,4-D. After the adventitious buds were transferred to 1/2 strength SH medium containing 0.1%(w/v) activated charcoal, and then transferred to 1/2 SH medium with out activated charcoal alternatively, adventitious buds could grow to plantlets.
                     周怡彤                      88 2000 利用RAPD研究臺灣紅檜直幹與分叉植株間遺傳上之差異                                                                                                                                                                                          Using RAPD Makers to Study the Genatic variatoin in straight and folking trees of Chamaecyparis formosensis                                                                                                                                                     王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     紅檜,直幹,分叉,遺傳變異,逢機擴大多型性核酸                                                                                                                                                                              Chamaecyparis formosensis,straight,folking,genetic variation,Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)                                                                                          逢機擴大多形性核酸(Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, RAPD)分析技術,近年來廣被應用在研究植物的遺傳及分類系統上,本研究即利用RAPD之分析探討紅檜直幹與分叉植株間遺傳上之差異。在棲蘭、溪頭及台東三個紅檜族群中各選取直幹及分叉植株各20株樣本,總共120株樣本進行分析,使用了10個人造序列的引子,共記錄了 131 DNA片段,其中85 條為多型性(64.9%),其餘的46條為單型性(35.1%)。
結果顯示棲蘭地區直幹紅檜之平均遺傳相似性為
0.875474,分叉幹紅檜為0.860263;溪頭地區直幹紅檜之平均遺傳相似性為0.829053,分叉幹紅檜為0.788368;台東地區直幹紅檜之平均遺傳相似性為0.853158,分叉幹紅檜為0.850789
各地區紅檜直幹與分叉植株單株之間的平均遺傳相似性,棲蘭地區紅檜為
0.817615,溪頭地區紅檜為0.786115,而台東地區紅檜為0.813137。再經交叉比對不同地區直幹與分叉幹間的平均遺傳相似性,棲蘭直幹與溪頭分叉幹間為0.799416,棲蘭直幹與台東分叉幹間為0.822449,溪頭直幹與棲蘭分叉幹間為0.824667,溪頭直幹與台東分叉幹間為0.808821,台東直幹與棲蘭分叉幹間之遺傳相似性為0.830416,而台東直幹與溪頭分叉幹間之遺傳相似性為0.805474
棲蘭、溪頭及台東地區內的平均相似性分別為
0.867869,0.8087110.851974。顯示出台灣紅檜三個地區無族群分化現象。
RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers have recently been used to estimate genetic variation and taxonomic relationships in plants. In this study, RAPD analysis  was performed to  determinate genetic  variation between straight and folking trees of Chamaecyparis formosensis. Total 120 samples were used in this study, including 20 straight trees and 20 folking trees from each of the three study area (Chilan, Chitou and Taitung ). Ten arbitary sequenced primers were used and 131 DNA fragments were recorded. Among  them, 46 fragments showed  monomorphism (35.1%)and 85 showed polymorphism(64.9%).
           Average similarity coefficient for straight and folking trees in Chilan were 0.875474 and 0.860263 respectively. Average similarity coefficient for straight and folking trees in Chitou  were 0.829053 and 0.788368 respectively .For the Taitung area, average similarity coefficient for straight and folking trees of Chamaecyparis formosensis were 0.853158 and 0.850789 respectively.
           The Average similarity coefficient of Chamaecyparis within Chilan, Chitou and Taitung were 0.817615, 0.786115 and 0.813137 respectively. By comparing the average similarity coefficient of straight and folking trees of Chamaecyparis formosensis between different area,  the average similarity coefficient between straight trees in Chilan and folking trees in Chitou was 0.799416. The average similarity coefficient between straight trees in Chilan and folking trees in Taitung was 0.822449 and the average similarity coefficient between straight trees in Chitou and folking trees in Chilan was 0.824667. The average similarity coefficient between straight trees in Chitou and folking trees in Taitung was 0.808821. The average similarity coefficient between straight trees in Taitung and folking trees in Chilan was 0.830416 and the average similarity coefficient between straight trees in Taitung and folking trees in Chitou was 0.805747.
           Average similarity coefficient for Chilan, Chitou  and Taitung area  were 0.867869, 0.808711 and 0.851974 respectively. These results suggested that Chamaecyparis formosensis in these three area were not differentiated significantly.
D83605003            詹明勳                      87 0 塔塔家地地區天然生台灣雲杉樹木氣候學之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                 Dendroclimatological Study on the Natural Taiwan Spruce (Picea morrisonicola) in Ta-Ta-Chia Area of Central Taiwan                                                                                                                                              姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           博士     台灣雲杉,樹輪,X-射線微密度計法,樹木氣候學,反應函數,相關函數,颱風                                                                                                                                                                                                   Picea morrisonicola,Tree-ring,Soft x-ray micro-densitometry,Dendroclimatology,Response function,Correlation function,Typhoon                                                                                                                          本研究從台灣雲杉樹輪,微觀解剖構造與形成層細胞開始分裂之時序著手,建立台灣雲杉樹木氣候學研究之基礎;台灣雲杉形成層細胞分裂活動開始時序之觀察,得知199955日採集之樹蕊形成層已開始分裂。
塔塔加地區之台灣雲杉立木以軟
X-射線微密度計法,決定早晚材密度的境界為560 Kg/m3 透過樹輪解析程式分析樹蕊獲得8個樹輪特徵值,建立首批完整之樹輪8個特徵值年表(224-250)資料庫。
透過樹木氣候學研究法,得知樹輪寬度特徵值主要反映出生長季節開始之春季溫度與秋季溫度,及夏季與秋季降雨量;不同海拔之樹輪密度特徵值,對於不同月份降雨量在垂直海拔梯度上環境之變化
(1800m-2600m)反應並沒有特別明顯的規律變化,而樹輪密度特徵值對於同一月份降雨量在不同海拔之反應具有類似的結果。樹輪密度年表受月份平均溫度的影響較大,而受月份降雨量影響較小或者呈現負相關。
生育地過去
245年的平均溫度,各時期溫度的變動1835-1840年溫度偏冷;1845-1850年溫度又有回暖的趨勢;1850-1870年為平穩期溫度變化不大;1870-1890年溫度偏低;1890-1930年為平穩期;1930-1950年溫度又偏低;1950年以後溫度有逐漸上升的趨勢。生育地過去245年的夏季與秋季降雨量的變動,1920世紀初有較偏乾的趨勢,1940年以後見轉為偏濕,1990年以後轉為偏乾的趨勢。
分析不同海拔,颱風經過生育地之
26年的樹輪寬度指數實際值與預測值之相關係數,發現相關性係數降低至(0.50-0.55),颱風未經過生育地之16年樹輪寬度指數實際值與預測值之相關係數(0.81-085)。颱風因子的干擾效應,降低正常氣候因子之擬合度。
The purpose of this study was to establish an information the fundamental dendroclimatology of Taiwan spruce distrbuted in the Ta-Ta-Chia area of central Taiwan.  Firstly , micro anatomical structure of cambium division activities of wood was observed.  According to the sampls taken on May 5th,1999, cambium has begun to divide.
           Secondly, Taiwan spruce density boundary of early-wood and late-wood was 560 kg/m3 determined by soft x-ray micro-densitometry method. Chronology of eight tree-ring characteristics chronology was established from cores analyzed by tree-ring analysis program.
           According to dendroclimatological results indicated that tree-ring width parameters responded to spring temperatures, fall temperature, summer precipitation, and fall precipitation of current growth season.  However, tree-ring density parameters responded to summer temperature of current growth season and weak correlation or negative correlation show to the precipitation.  The tree-ring density parameters of different elevation areas did not respond to precipitation of different month significantly, that is , the elevation gradient had no significant relationship to the change of environment; so did the parameters to monthly precipitation.  The results also shown that tree-ring density was significantly affected by monthly temperature more than that of monthly precipitation.
           In the past 245 years, reconstructed average temperature of the site shown that it was cool during 1835-1840 and change to warm during 1845-1850.  During 1850-1870 and 1890-1930, the temperature was stable, but during it was cool during 1810-1890 and 1930-1950.  Then, temperature increased after 1950.  Meanwhile, the change of summer and autumn precipitation were short at the beginning of 19th and 20th centuries, then it turn to humid after 1940.  However, it decreased again after 1990.
           In analysis of the correlation coefficients between actual indices and predicted indices of tree-ring width in different elevation area, the correlation coefficients (0.50-0.55) of the tree-ring indices affected by typhoon of 26 years was lower than those (0.81-085) without typhoon affect of 16 years.  The results indicated that the disturbance of typhoon would reduce the fixation of regular climatic factors.
D82605002            李鎮宇                      87 0 蘭陽溪流域不同海拔青剛櫟遺傳變異之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                       Studies on the Genetic Variation of Cyclobalanopsis glauca from Different Elevations in the Lan-Yang Hsi Catchment Area                                                                                                                                         姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           博士     遺傳變異,青剛櫟,同位酵素,異交比率,臭氧,二氧化硫,沈降速率                                                                                                                                                                                             genetic diversity .Cyclobalanopsis glauca .isozyme,outcrossing rate.ozone.sulfur dioxide,deposition velocity                                                                                                              本試驗利用蘭陽溪流域青剛櫟五個不同海拔29個家系290株三年生苗木,並分六個海拔採集89株野外母樹測定族群內遺傳歧異度及族群間遺傳分化。利用9種酵素11個基因座, 其中有5 個基因座為多形性,進行研究。後裔苗木多形性基因座比率範圍由36.3645.45,平均43.63%。每個體異結合性基因座百分比範圍由 10.9 17.6,平均16.0﹪。每基因座等位基因平均數目範圍由 1.45-1.55,平均1.51。每基因座等位基因有效數目範圍由1.13~1.23 ,平均1.19。平均異結合性期望值範圍從0.1150.190,平均0.177。野外母樹多形性基因座比率範圍由36.3645.45,平均43.94﹪。每個體異結合性基因座百分比範圍由 10.3 15.9,平均12.7。每基因座等位基因平均數目範圍由 1.36-1.55,平均1.47。每基因座等位基因有效數目範圍由1.15~1.22,平均1.19。平均異結合性期望值範圍從0.1310.182,平均0.167。以上數值與其他長壽命多年生木本植物相比青剛櫟有較高的值。
F-statistics 及基因歧異度分析, 族群間及族群內遺傳變異分配比率, 結果發現族群內的變異量占總變異量92%, 族群間只占8%。這個結果顯示青剛櫟不同海拔天然族群缺乏次結構的分化, 其原因可能為不同海拔族群間基因流轉缺乏有效障蔽所致。平均單基因座異交比率為0.743,多基因座異交比率為0.956。青剛櫟屬高異交比率之樹種。
青剛櫟外部形態性狀在海拔間及母樹間皆呈極顯著差異而同位酵素研究結果青剛櫟族群間變異量只佔總變異量的
8.5﹪,顯示形態與同位酵素研究結果並不一致。各海拔臭氧總平均吸收速率為6.46n mole/m2s)、總平均沈降速率為0.79mm/s)、總平均耗損率為5.76﹪。臭氧吸收速率、沈降速率、耗損率經變異數分析結果,海拔間及母樹間差異均極顯著。各海拔二氧化硫總平均吸收速率為12.10n mole/m2s)、總平均沈降速率為1.48mm/s)、總平均耗損率為10.34﹪。二氧化硫吸收速率、沈降速率經變異數分析結果,海拔間差異不顯著,母樹間差異顯著,耗損率經變異數分析結果,海拔間差異極顯著,母樹間差異顯著。各酵素不同基因型臭氧及二氧化硫沈降速率平均值,經變異數分析結果,差異皆不顯著。顯示不同酵素基因座與臭氧及二氧化硫沈降速率之間並無相關。
各性狀與臭氧及二氧化硫之吸收速率、沈降速率、耗損率間,除種子發芽率與二氧化硫之耗損率不具相關外,其餘性狀均與臭氧及二氧化硫之吸收速率、沈降速率、耗損率間具有相關性。
Genetic diversity within and genetic differentiation among five different elevation populations of Cyclobalanopsis glauca in Lan-Yang Hsi catchment area were investigated using 290 three-year old progenies belonging to 29 families and 89 mother trees in six elevation populations. Five out of the 11 loci examined were polymorphic in 9 enzyme systems. In progeny, the average proportion of polymorphic loci per population was 43.63% ranging from 36.36﹪to 45.45﹪. In average, the percent heterozygosity per individual ranged from 10.9﹪to 17.6﹪and averaged 16.0﹪, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.45 to 1.55 and averaged 1.51, and the effective number of alleles per locus from 1.13 to 1.23 and averaged 1.19,mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.115 to 0.190 and average 0.177 in progeny. In mother tree, the average proportion of polymorphic loci per population was 43.94% ranging from 36.36﹪to 45.45﹪. In average, the percent heterozygosity per individual ranged from 10.3﹪to 15.9﹪and averaged 12.7﹪, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.36 to 1.55 and averaged 1.47, and the effective number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.15 to 1.22 and averaged 1.19,mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.131 to 0.182 and averaged 0.167 in progeny. Compared with long-lived perennial woody plants probably Cyclobalanopsis glauca reflects high degree of genetic variation.
           Partitioning the genetic variability into within- and among- population components with F-statistics and gene diversity analysis led to an estimate of within- population variation amounting to 92% of the total variation ,only about 8﹪of the total genetic diversity existed among population. These suggested a lack of barriers to gene flow among different elevation populations.The average single locus outcrossing rate and multilocus outcrossing rate was 0.743 and 0.956.These results showed relatively high outcrossing rate in Cyclobalanopsis glauca
           As to morphological character, there were highly significant difference among the elevation and mother tree. There were no consistency agreement in the result of morphological and isozyme variation.
           The average of flux density ,deposition velocity and depletion rate were 6.46(n mole/m2s),0.79mm/s,5.76﹪in different elevation fumigated with ozone. There were highly significant differences among the elevation and mother tree in three parameters. The average of flux density ,deposition velocity and depletion rate were 12.10(n mole/m2s),1.48mm/s,10.34﹪by sulfur dioxide fumigation. There were significant differences among the elevations and mother trees in flux density , deposition velocity. But, there was no significant difference among the elevations and significant difference among the mother trees in depletion rate. There was no significant difference among ozone and sulfur dioxide deposition velocity with respect to different enzyme patterns.
           There were high correlation between ozone and sulfur dioxide flux density , deposition velocity and depletion rate with morphological character except germinative percentage.
R86625035            莊俊逸                      87 0 塔塔加地區土壤動物之初步研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Preliminary Study on Soil Animals of Ta Ta-Chia Area                                                                                                                                                                                                            姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     土壤動物,環境因子,食物網,塔塔加                                                                                                                                                                                                soil animals,environment  factor,food chain,Ta Ta-chia                                                                                                                       本研究主要探討塔塔加地區主要林相中土壤動物的種類組成及物種多樣性、優勢種群的數量變動及不同林型下土壤動物的組成及數量異同,且初步探討土壤動物數量在12個月中變化及其與土壤因子、微氣候因子間的關係,並通過食性分析,初步擬定其食物網結構。樣區設立為:鐵杉林區、玉山箭竹區、草原區。本研究每個月調查一次從19983月正式開始至19992月定期採樣調查,共採集546樣本數,包括216個乾烘土樣、216個溼烘土樣及24個手挑土樣。共記錄大、中、小型土壤動物2860個,分屬於372034科。據已有資料分析塔塔加地區土壤動物群落之性質屬於高山針葉林土壤動物類型。林相中土壤動物數量及類群數以鐵杉林為最多,其次為箭竹林及草原。優勢類群上鐵杉林為跳蟲類、玉山箭竹林為線蚓類,草原無明顯之優勢類群。土壤動物垂直分佈為土壤0-5 cm層的數量遠大於5-10 cm層及10-15 cm層,而5-10 cm層及10-15 cm層之間無顯著差異。土壤動物群落多樣性(Diversity)指數以草原為最高,其次為鐵杉林、箭竹林,出現這種現象的原因是鐵杉林及箭竹林有顯著優勢類群,而草原的優勢類群不明顯。在所調查三個樣區間的微氣候因子中無明顯的差異,故無法說明微氣候因子是造成三個樣區間土壤動物的差異;但各林相中鐵杉林土壤動物數量變化與氣溫最小值呈相關性;玉山箭竹林內土壤動物數量變化與氣溫中最大值、月均值及最低值;相對濕度最低值及土壤表層溫度最高值也具相關性。鐵杉林及玉山箭竹林的優勢類群與其土壤含水率、有機質、鉀、鈣、鎂間相關性顯著;草原區土壤含水率及有機質量皆較低,且土壤容重較大,所以此環境下土壤動物數量皆少於另外兩樣區。本研究掌握該地區三種植物相下土壤動物組成類群,對常見類群的食性通過實際觀察及文獻查閱,擬初步構建該地區土壤動物食物網,包括以土壤動物取食基本食源範圍而定的食物網及土壤動物相互關係為基礎的食物網。 This object of this study was deal with the soil animal composition, diversity, quantity variation of dominant in the main forest type of Ta-Ta Chia district and difference in soil animal composition and quantity under different forest type. Through the food resources analysis and preliminary construct food chain, in order to provide fundamental data of material cycle and energy research in Ta-Ta Chia district forest ecosystem, the study sites were established in the stand of Tsuga, Yushania-cane and grassland. we observed the data in each month started from March 1998 to february 1999.Total of 546 samples were collected, including 216 dry soil animals, 216 wet soil animals and 24 macrofauna(divided by hand with naked eyes). Total of 2860 soil animals were recorded including macrofauna,middlefauna and microfauna which belongs to 3 phyla, 7 classes, 20 orders, 34 families. According to the previous study, the soil animals in Ta-Ta-Chia belongs to the Alpine coniferous soil animal type. The results shows the order of the soil animal number and group: Tsuga forest>Yushania-cane forest >Grassland.Collembola is the dominant in Tsuga forest. Enchytraeidae is the dominant in Yushania-cane forest and there was no obvious dominant in the Grassland. In this study, the trend of verticle distribution of soil animals number: 0-5 cm>5-10 cm >10-15 cm layer, and there was no obvious difference between 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm layer. Soil animal diversity index are Grassland> Tsuga forest>Yushania-cane forest because there were obvious dominant in the Tsuga and Yushania-cane forest , but no obvious dominant in the Grassland.
           There is no obvious difference in the the microclimate between the three investigated sites, thus we can not prove that the microclimate is the cause of the difference in soil animal between the three sites; however, within the three sites, there is shown correlation between quantitative of soil animals in Tsuga forest and minimum air temperature, correlation with quantitative of soil animals in Yushania-cane forest and maximum, mean,minimum of air temperature and minimum relative humidity and maximum soil surface temperature. Dominant groups in Tsuga forest and Yushania-cane forest are significant correlation with moisture, organic matter,K,Ca and Mg. The soil animals amount in Grassland are less than other two plots,because the less moisture and organic matter.
                This study recorded the soil animal groups in these three forest type of Ta-Ta Chia. In order to know practical observation and paper reviews had been done the habit of some of the specific soil animal groups. Through preliminary construction of soil animal food web in Ta-Ta Chia, including food chain range based on the food resources of soil animal and food chain based on the observed interaction of the soil animal.
R85625022            宋炯輝                      87 0 塔塔加地區台灣二葉松造林地的根圈與本體土壤之理化性質與金屬形態分佈                                                                                                                                                             Physico-Chemical Properties and Metal Speciations of Rhizosphere and Bulk Soil of Taiwan Red Pine in Ta-Ta-Chia Area                                                                                                                                            姜家華教授                ,王亞男教授                 國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     根圈,金屬形態分佈,塔塔加,台灣二葉松                                                                                                                                                                                          Rhizosphere,Metal Speciations,Ta-Ta-Chia,Taiwan Red Pine                                                                                                                  本研究以塔塔加地區台灣二葉松作為試驗對象,希望在森林學的研究範圍內進行本區植生及土壤理化性質的分析調查。另引用在土壤學範圍的分析方法比較台灣二葉松根圈與本體土壤的基本理化性質及採用連續抽取法(multiple-step extraction),對根圈土壤與本體土壤中金屬離子與土壤膠體的鍵結,做不同形態的劃分及分析其量的差異。
研究結果顯示本區植生以台灣二葉松為主要樹種;而本區土壤為粘質壤土,屬強酸性土壤;土壤含水率、有機質及交換性鉀鈣鎂在不同土壤深度間皆有顯著差異,但有效磷含量則無顯著差異。在台灣二葉松根圈與本體土壤的基本理化性質研究結果顯示,根圈土壤的特性如下:
pH較低,而交換性鉀鈣鎂較高;在根圈與本體土壤金屬形態分佈中鋁分佈於有機物鍵結及殘留物居高;鐵分佈於與金屬和有機質形成的複合物鍵結及與結晶性鐵氧化物鏈結;銅分佈於與易還原金屬氧化物鏈結及與無定形礦質膠體鏈結最多;而鋅與錳大多分佈於殘留物中。然而,鋁、鐵、銅、鋅、錳五個元素在殘留物形態比例皆很高。
           The rhizosphere of Taiwan red pine in the Ta-Ta-Chia area were selected for this study. The vegetation and physico-chemical properties of soil in the site were studied. The rhizosphere and bulk soils were studied for their physico-chemical properties. The mutiple-step extraction method for the rhizosphere and bulk soils show the metal-bound fractions and evaluate their differences.
           Taiwan red pine is major species in this sites. Soil texture is clay loam and strong acid soil in this site. The moisture, organic matter and exchange cations were significantly difference with the depth, but the available phosphate showed no significantly difference. The pH values of rhizosphere soils were lower than the bulk soils, however its exchange cations are greater than bulk soils. The Al distribution of metal fractionations indicate that organic-bound and residual fractions are major species. The Fe fractions indicate that metal-organic complex-bound and crystalline Fe oxide-bound are major species. The Cu species indicate that easily reducible metal oxide-bound and amorphous mineral colloid-bound are the major species. The residual fractions of Zn and Mn are the major species.
R84625027            章友萱                      86 0 青剛櫟之組織培養                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tissue Culture of Cyclobalanopsis glauca Thunb                                                                                                                                                                                                                  王亞男                      ,姜家華 國立台灣大學                                 森林學系                                                 碩士     組織培養,青剛櫟                                                                                                                                                                                                Tissue Culture,Cyclobalanopsis glauca                                                                                                           本論文乃以青剛櫟 (Cyclobalanopsis glauca Thunb) 之未成熟胚為培植體,置入含1 ppm NAA 0.5 ppm BAMS培養基中,可誘導出無菌苗。
分別以未成熟胚及無菌苗之胚軸、子葉為培植體誘導癒合組織結果:
未成熟胚、胚軸在MS添加1ppm NAA,子葉在MS添加0.5 ppm
2,4-D
效果最佳,而三種培植體中,以未成熟胚誘導出的癒合組織最多。當植物生長調節劑不同,誘導出的癒合組織形態也不同,其中以
2,4-D誘導出胚性癒合組織,可作為懸浮培養的材料。另以未成熟胚、胚軸、子葉進行體胚的誘導,結果:以胚軸及子葉誘導出的體胚數量不多,且部份會形成癒合組織,未成熟胚進行體 胚誘導效果最佳。在直接體胚誘導上,最適合青剛櫟的auxincytokinin的組合為使用0.5 ppm NAA 0.5 ppm TDZ,其誘導的體胚質與量均佳。促進體胚成熟時,加入0.51 ppm ABA,可使體胚正常發育。
Immature embryos of Cyclobalanopsis glauca Thunb were used as explants in this experiment. They were transferred into MS medium supplemented with 1 ppm NAA and 0.5 ppm BA, and highest germination rate were obtained; accordingly in vitro seedling material were established successfully.
                   Callus were induced from immature embryos, cotyledon and hypocotyl of in vitro seedlings respectively. Optinum medium of plant growth regulators  used for callus induction of immature embryos and hypocotyl was MS medium with 1 ppm NAA, and of cotyledon was MS medium with 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. Among these three explants, immature embryos could be induced largest among of callus. Phenotype of callus induced were different to each other according to different plant growth regulators. Used 2,4-D could induce  embryogenic callus, this callus were used as materials for suspension culture.
                   Since hypocotyl and cotyledon could be induced little somatic embryos, they tended to callus formation, so only immature embryos were used as materials for the following experiments. 0.5ppm NAA and 0.5 ppm TDZ were optinum conceration for best direct somatic embryos induction. For normal somatic embryo maturation, 0.5-1 ppm ABA was added.
R84625023            張肇麟                      86 0 臺灣雲杉體胚之誘導                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The Induction of Somatic Embryo of Picea morrisonicola Hayata                                                                                                                                                                                                   王亞男                      ,姜家華 國立台灣大學                                 森林學系                                                 碩士     體胚,臺灣雲杉,胚原性胚柄細胞團                                                                                                                                                                                 Somatic Embryo,Picea morrisonicola,embronal suspension mass                                                                                                         以台灣雲杉(Picea morrisonicola Hayata)成熟胚為培植體進行培養。將成熟種子經48小時流水處理,以70%酒精浸泡2分鐘及浸在4% NaOCl水溶液(含約1%(v/v) Tween 20展著劑)中超音波震盪10分鐘,污染率為零。取成熟胚進行胚培養,於每一個50 ml三角錐形瓶中的20 ml固體培養基上放置10個胚。在全光照及黑暗的環境中培養,產生癒合組織的不同:全光照下誘導出綠色、緊實之癒合組織,在黑暗下則為黃色、鬆軟之癒合組織。將黃色、鬆軟癒合組織培養於添加2ppm 2,4-D1 ppm BAMS培養基中,在黑暗環境下經過四個月,可誘導出白色黏質的胚原性癒合組織,其含有具胚性端及胚柄細胞的前子葉期體胚;最後將胚原性癒合組織移至添加0.1ppm2,4-D1ppm BA2 ppm ABAMS固態培養基中,經過兩個月全光照的培養,則可誘導出綠色短軸之子葉期體胚。 Results of mature embryo culture and somatic embryo induction of Picea morrisonicola Hayata were as follows: mature seeds were first treated with
               running water for 48 hours, then soaked in 70% ethanol solution for 2 minutes. Soaked in 4% NaOCl (supplemented 1% (v/v) Tween 20) and treated with ultrasonic shaker for 10 minutes. Mature embryos were them isolated from the seed and 10 mature embryos were transferred into 50 ml
               conical flask containing 20 ml MS solid culture medium. Callus with different phenotype were induced after they were culture under light and dark conditions respectively. Under light conditions, green and compact callus were formed, but yellow and soft callus were formed under dark.
               After yellow and soft callus were transferred to medium containing 2 ppm 2,4-D and 1 ppm BA, and cultured under dark conditions for 4 weeks, white and sticky embrygenic callus were induced. These callus contained precotyledonary phase somatic embryos with embryonal head and suspensor . Cotyledonary phase somatic embryos with green and short axis were induced after these callus were transferred onto MS solid medium supplemented with 1 ppm 2,4-D,1 ppm NAA and 2 ppm ABA and cultured at light conditions for 2 months.
R84625026            陳子浩                      86 0 溪頭地區七種林相土壤動物之初步研究                                                                                                                                                                                                             Preliminary Study on Soil Fauna of Seven Forest  Stands in Chitou Area                                                                                                                                                                                          姜家華                      ,王亞男 國立台灣大學                                 森林學系                                                 碩士     土壤動物,林相                                                                                                                                                                                                   Soil Fauna,forest stands                                                                                                                    本試驗以台灣大學實驗林溪頭營林區為樣地,擇取七種林相,包括柳杉林、台灣杉林、紅檜林、銀杏林、孟宗竹林、天然闊葉林與柳杉林相改良地。在七個林相中各取三個樣點,於1998222號與1998315號,各採一次樣,並調查林地狀況,包括鬱蔽度、樹高、地被層高、地被值群調查記錄。土壤樣本於樣點以100立方公分的採土圓筒採集0-5公分、5-10公分、10-15公分土壤,另外再採取約2公斤的土壤密封於封口袋中。土壤採回後風乾保存,並做土壤質地分析、土壤容重、PH值、有機質、全氮量、無機態氮(銨態和硝態)、有效性磷和可交換性鉀鈣鎂。土壤動物樣本以體積100立方公分的採土圓筒同樣採三層土壤,作為乾烘法的樣品,以25立方公分的採土圓筒採三層,作為溼烘法的樣品。以直徑28.5公分的採土圓筐採5公分的土壤,為大型土壤動物的樣品。大型土壤動物用肉眼看手挑,乾生土壤動物用Tullgren漏斗,溼生土壤動物用Baermann漏斗。共294個樣品,第一次採的樣烘24小時,第二次烘48小時。共記錄土壤動物4門、10綱、23目、41科、20屬、6種。手採法樣本數1423個,乾烘778個,溼烘91個,共2292個。資料分析後,得知各林相土壤動物數量最多的是天然林,最少的是紅檜林。Shannon-Weaver多樣性指數最高的是柳杉林,最低的是孟宗竹林。Jaccard相似度比較的結果,土壤動物組成最相近的是柳杉林與天然林相似度86%,紅檜林與天然林相似度最低僅58%。不同林相間的土壤動物組成與結構是不同的,即使數量與多樣性指數很接近,但優勢類群也不一樣。土壤因子與土壤動物比較的結果,各林相土壤動物的總數與土壤質地、PH值、有機質、全氮量、無機態氮量、有效性磷、可交換性鉀鈣鎂都沒有顯著的相關。土壤動物的多樣性指數與土壤pH(R2=0.6503)、可交換性的鈣(R2=0.731)和碳氮比(R2=0.8255)有顯著的正相關,可作為林地pH值與碳氮比的指標,其他的因子則相關不顯著。                The study site is located at the Chitou in the Experimental forest of the National Taiwan University. Seven forest types including pure stands of Cryptomeria japonica, Taiwania cryptomeriodes, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Ginkgo biloba, Phyllostachys pubescens, natural forest and forest type improvement land were selected.
               Three sample points were randomly chosen in each forest types respectively. Soil sample were selected on February 22 rd and March 15 th, 1998 with vegetation investigated which includes canopy closure pencentage, tree height, vegetation height, and ground vegetation investigation. Soil animal samples were collected on sites with metal cylinder of 100 square centimeters as dry method and 25ml of cylinder for wet method from soil of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-15 cm in depth.
               Additional soil sample of 2 kilograms were also collected. Soil were air dried and  preserved for soil texture,bulk density, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen(ammonium and nitrate), available phosphate, and exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnacium analyses. Soil asmple of 5cm deep were collected with metal cylinder of 28.5 cm in diameter as sample for macrofauna. Macrofauna were divided by hand with naked eyes, dry soil animals were collected with Tullgren funnel, and wet soil animals with Baermann funnel. Total of 294 samples collected for the first time were dried for 24 hours, second time for 48 hours. 4 phyla、10 classes、23 orders、41 families、 20 genus、and 6 different species of soil animals were recorded. Total of 1423 samples were collected by hand, 778 by dry, and 91 by wet method, hance amount of 2292 samples were obsered. After data analysis, it showed that natural forest had the abundant of soil animals, stand of Chamaecyparis formosensis was the least. Shannon-Weaver index of diversity were the highest in pure stand of Cryptomeria japonica, and lowest in Phyllostachys pubescens. According to the result of Jaccard similarity comparison, pure stand of Cryptomeria japonica and natural forest have the most familiar soil animal composition with similarity. of 86%; Chamaecyparis formosensis and natural forest had the lowest of 58%. Soil animal composition and structure among different forest types are not the same. Even if they have similar amount and diversity index,dominant population will still be different. The soil animal amount versuse different forest types is not shown in relevant correlation with soil texture, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen contents, available phosphate, and exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium. The diversity index of soil animal could be a reliable indicator for forest pH and C/N ratio. The relevant correlation (R2) of soil animals is 0.6503 with soil pH , exchangeable calcium of 0.731 and C/N ratio of 0.8255.
R83605035            楊美玲                      85 0 塔塔加地區森林火災對松類造林地之植群、微氣候及土壤性質的影響                                                                                                                                                                      The study on the variations of vagetations, the microclimate and soil chemical properties after the forest-fire from pinus plantation in Tatajia area                                                                                                           姜家華, 王亞男            國立台灣大學                                 森林學系                                                 碩士     光合作用有效輻射量,森林火災,微氣候,土壤化學性質                                                                                                                                                                                       photosynthetically active radiation,forest-fire,microclimate,soil chemical properties                                                                                                         玉山國家公園塔塔加地區,於民國八十二年一月六日發生該園區成立以來最大的森林火災,範圍約達三百公頃。自民國八十四年四月至八十五年三月期間,選擇該區之麟趾山東側及東南側坡地為林火區試驗地,進行植群調查、微氣候觀測、土壤之有機質、酸鹼值(pH)、可溶性磷、及可溶性鉀、鈣、鎂的測定等工作。    調查期間林火區的植物組成,係以高山芒、巒大蕨、馬醉木、紅毛杜鵑、百喜草、褐毛柳、玉山箭竹等為主,其出現頻度均高於百分之五十,其重要值總和高達166.43,其中以高山芒最為優勢,其重要值為 63.04。此乃由於林冠疏開,大量陽光直射林床,在林下日照充足情形下,植群當以這些陽性植物為優勢。對照區仍維持原有林相,下層地被植群以玉山箭竹為主,上層植群則以臺灣華山松與臺灣二葉松佔優勢。    林火區試驗地之光合作用有效輻射量年均值增為575.733 mol/m2/month,為對照區之五倍,而其各時分之光合作用有效輻射量年均值最高可達 3.479 mol/m2/hr,究其原因應為林冠疏開,大量陽光可直射林床所致,此現象與林火區目前以陽性植物為優勢之植群調查結果一致。    火災後,林火區因林冠的疏開,林床的裸露,大量陽光可直射林床,且空氣流通性佳,使得林火區之氣溫年均值升為9.95℃,較對照區高出0.98℃,並造成林火區各時分之氣溫年平均高低(日夜)溫差升高為12.11℃,較對照區高出 2.22℃;同理,失去上層植物林冠的遮蔽保護,林火區的日照量遠高於對照區者,且土壤表面堆積許多深黑色的灰化物,改變了表層土壤原有的熱傳導性質及反射率,造成林火區的表土溫度年均值增為 12.02℃,比對照區高出2.72℃,其表土各時分年平均高低(日夜)溫差升高為9.65℃,比對照區高出7.88℃。    林火區試驗地所發生的林火型態,應屬地表火,其高溫使土壤有機質炭化,降低林火區表土的有機質含量;林床原有枯枝葉堆機層於火災時燃燒成灰分,原含養分如鈣、鎂、鉀將重新釋放出來,這些陽離子會置換出土壤中原有的氫離子,使得林火區土壤的pH值升高;由灰分釋放出來的可溶性養分,使得林火區0-5 cm土層的鉀、鈣、鎂含量增高;至於林火區土壤可溶性磷含量的降低,可能係因林冠疏開,林床裸露,大量陽光可直照林床,導致下層植物種類繁多,且生長快速而茂盛,促使植物根部吸收可溶性磷的作用加速,而造成此特殊現象。  
R83605020            葉千萬                      84 0 利用RAPD研究臺灣穗花杉族群之遺傳變異                                                                                                                                                                                                            Using RAPD markers to study the genetic variation of  Amentotaxus formosana populations                                                                                                                                                                         姜家華;王亞男             國立台灣大學                                 森林學系                                                 碩士     逢機擴大多形性核酸,遺傳變異,臺灣穗花杉,族群                                                                                                                                                                                                   RAPD,genetic variation,Amentataxus formosana,population                                                                                                                       逢機擴大多形性核酸(Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA,RAPD)分析技術,近來被廣泛的應用在研究植物的遺傳及分類關係上,本研究中利用RAPD對臺灣穗花杉族群的遺傳變異進行評估.在大武及茶茶牙賴兩族群中各選取50株樣本,總共100株樣本進行分析,使用了10個人造序列的引子,共記錄了146DNA片段,其中18條為多形性(12.3%),其餘的128條為單形性(87.7 %).大武族群及茶茶牙賴族群內的平均相似度分別為0.99010.9894,兩族群間的遺傳距離為0.0127,顯示出臺灣穗花杉兩族群無族群分化現象. RAPD(Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers have recently been used to estimate genetic variation and taxonomic relationships in plants. In this study, RAPD analysis was performed to determinate genetic variation in 2 populations of Amentotaxus formosana Li. Total 100 samples was used in this study including 50 trees from Tawu population and 50 trees from Tsatsayalai population. Ten arbitrary sequenced primers were  used and 146 DNA fragments were recorded. Among them, 18 fragments showed polymorphism(12.3%),and 128 DNA fragments showed monomorphism(87.7%). Average similarity coefficient for Tawu population and Tsatsayalai population are 0.9901 and 0.9894, respectively. Genetic distance between Tawu and Tsatsayalai population was 0.0127. These results suggest that the two populations were not differentiated.
R81605027            林志謀                      84 0 臺灣肖楠、臺灣穗花杉與臺灣紅豆杉之組織培養                                                                                                                                                                                                 Tissue Culture of Calocedrus formosana (Florin) Florin 、  Amentotaxus formosana Li. and Taxua mairei                                                                                                                                                          王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林學系                                                 碩士     臺灣肖楠,臺灣穗花杉,臺灣紅豆杉,微體繁殖                                                                                                                                                                                             Calocedrus formosana(Florin).Florin.,Amentotaxus formosana Li.  本試驗嘗試探討並建立臺灣肖楠(Calocedrus formosana (Florin)Florin)、臺灣穗花杉(Amentotaxus formosana Li.)與臺灣紅豆杉(Taxus mairei)三種樹種其組織培養之微體繁殖體系。初步結果如下:臺灣肖楠表面消毒試驗之結果,種子可達90%之無污染率,未成熟胚則可達零污染,4-6個月實生苗莖段可控制在92.5%無污染率,2-3年生實生苗莖段控制污染僅能達到57.5%之無污染率,且培植體於消毒後都褐化死亡。在器官形成方面:成熟胚培植於WPMMSB5三種基礎培養基對無菌苗之誘導效果最好。未成熟胚培養於添加600mg/l casein hydrolsate500mg/l yeast extract0.5ppmBA1ppmNAAWPM培養基中,可誘導出多芽體。無菌苗帶節莖段在添加0.05ppmNAA0.5ppmBAWPM培養基中可誘得最多腋芽之發生。4-6個月實生苗針狀葉帶節莖段在含有0.05ppm NAA1ppmBA之處理可誘導腋芽之發生,鱗狀葉培養於1ppmBA0.05ppm NAAWPM培養基中可誘導形成腋芽,但芽體叢生狀並玻璃質化,而在含有0.01ppmTDZ0.05ppmBA之處理可獲得60%之不定芽誘導率。癒合組織在含有1ppmNAA0.1ppmBAMS培養基誘導效果最佳。臺灣穗花杉之表面消毒試驗結果,以新梢可控制達78.2%無污染率, 1-2年生枝條雖可達94%之無污染率,但培植體易褐化死亡。以新梢為培植體培養於添加0.1ppmNAA0.1ppmBA0.1ppmNAA1ppmBA1ppm2,4-D 0.1ppmBA三種處理可得癒合組織最佳之誘導。臺灣穗花杉之雄花序於含有 30%coconut milk1000mg/lcasein hydrolysate1600mg/lglutamine 1000mg/lYeast extract,及2%maltose1.25ppmBA1/2MS培養基中經黑暗處理可誘導出癒合組織。臺灣紅豆杉之種子經表面消毒可達零污染率,十年生當年枝條可控制達85.6%無污染率。成熟胚置於DCRWhiteB5三種培養基中,以DCR誘導發芽率最佳,經繼代後25%能形成植株。十年生當年枝條在含1ppmNAA2 ppmKT處理誘導癒合組織效果最佳。 This study describes the development conditions and the propagation technique by in vitro culture for the Calocedrus formo- sna(Florin). Florin. , Amentotaxus formosana Li. and Taxus mairei. The primary results are as follow: In Calocedrus formosana(Florin). Florin.,the mature embryos、immature embyros、the needle-like leaves with node and scale- like leaves from 4-6 month-old seedling ; and 5-cm-long shoot tip from a lateral branch of 2-3-year-old tree were used as explants。In the surface sterilization: the immature embryos can overcome thecontamination and the seed could get the 90% no contamination,the explants from 4-6-months seedling could get the 92.5% non-contamination。But the explants from mature trees  only could be controled at 57.5% non-contamination,finally,the
               expla- nts will get brown and death。The medium of MS、WPM and B5 get the best rsults to establish sterile plants。Immature embryos will induce the multi buds in the basal medium of WPM which were supplemented with 0.5 ppm BA and 1 ppm NAA 。The needle with node from sterile plants will from the buds in the supplement of 0.05 ppm NAA and 0.5 ppm BA treament。 Amentotaxus formosana Li. achieved the best control of 78.2 %  non-contamination。Cali will be induced at the basal medium of WPM which were supplemented with 1 ppm 2,4-D and 0.1 ppm BA。
               Taxus mairei overcomes the contaimation in the surface sterilization。The embyro shows the best germination in the basal medium of DCR。Cali will be induced in the B5 medium supplement- ed with 1 ppm NAA and 2 ppm KT。
                     林志謀                      84 0 臺灣肖楠、臺灣穗花杉與臺灣紅豆杉之組織培養 Tissue Culture of Calocedrus formosana (Florin) Florin 、 Amentotaxus formosana Li. and Taxua mairei                                                                                                                                                           王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     臺灣肖楠,臺灣穗花杉,臺灣紅豆杉,微體繁殖,森林                                                                                                                                                                                                   Calocedrus formosana(Florin).Florin.,Amentotaxus formosana Li.,Taxus mairei,micropropagation,FORESTRY                                                                                                                        
This study describes the development conditions and the propagation technique by in vitro culture for the Calocedrus formosna(Florin). Florin. , Amentotaxus formosana Li. And Taxus mairei. The primary results are as follow: In Calocedrus formosana(Florin). Florin.,the mature embryosimmature embyrosthe needle-like leaves with node and scale- like leaves from 4-6 month-old seedling ; and 5-cm-long shoot tip from a lateral branch of 2-3-year-old tree were used as explantsIn the surface sterilization: the immature embryos can overcome the contamination and the seed could get the 90% no contaminationthe explants from 4-6-months seedling could get the 92.5% non-contaminationBut the explants from mature trees only could be controled at 57.5% non-contamination,finally, the explants will get brown and deathThe medium of MSWPM and B5 get the best rsults to establish sterile plantsImmature embryos will induce the multi buds in the basal medium of WPM which were supplemented with 0.5 ppm BA and 1 ppm NAA The needle with node from sterile plants will from the buds in the supplement of 0.05 ppm NAA and 0.5 ppm BA treamentAmentotaxus formosana Li. achieved the best control of 78.2 % non-contaminationCali will be induced at the basal medium of WPM which were supplemented with 1 ppm 2,4-D and 0.1 ppm BATaxus mairei overcomes the contaimation in the surface sterilizationThe embyro shows the best germination in the basalmedium of DCRCali will be induced in the B5 medium supplemented with 1 ppm NAA and 2 ppm KT
 
                     高毓瑩                      83 0 台灣櫸之組織培養                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tissue Culture of Zelkova Serrate                                                                                                                                                                                                                               王亞男                      ,姜家華                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     台灣櫸,微體繁殖系統                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        本試驗嘗試建立台灣櫸(Zelkova serrata)之微體繁殖系統,初步結果獲悉:以小苗之帶節莖段,胚,頂芽,子葉,與胚軸為培植體,培養於添加cytokininBAkinetin)與auxinNAA)之WPM培養基,可以誘得多芽體或不定芽。最適於各種培植體誘導芽體發生之植物生長調節劑分別為:小苗帶節莖段:lppm BA;胚:3 ppm BA0.01ppm NAA;子葉:0.01-0.1ppm TDZ;胚軸:5ppm BA0.5ppm NAA。誘得之芽體移至含1ppm GA3WPM固態培養基中抽長,抽長之枝條經切離移植於含2%蔗糖與 1ppm IBA WPM培養基中發根率可達100%
以懸浮培養之細胞做為分離原生質體的材料,經
2% cellulysin 0.5% pectolyase Y-23 之酵素溶液處理,原生質體收量甚佳,可達 3.4×105/ml。培養三天後具活力的原生質體約為80%,葉片原生質體分離困難,需進一步研究。
 
                     王介鼎                      83 0 臺灣穗花杉族群同位酵素變異之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                Allozyme Variation in populations of Amentotaxus Formosana Li                                                                                                                                                                                                   姜家華                      ,王亞男                      ,林讚標                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士     穗花杉族群,同位酵素變異                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        臺灣穗花杉為臺灣之珍貴稀有之裸子植物,利用水平式澱粉膠電泳法,測定族群內遺傳歧異度及族群間遺傳分化。觀測10種酵素系統,20個基因座中僅有一個基因座為多形性。二個族群中,多形性基因座PGI-1,在大武族群有二個等位基因,茶茶牙賴族群為單形性,僅具PGI-1-B等位基因。大武族群內僅出現兩種基因型(ABBB),PGI-1-A的頻率在愈年輕的年齡層出現之異結合性比率愈高(25%)。大武和茶茶牙賴族群的平均異結合性期望值分別為0.0080,每個體異結合性基因座百分比分別為0.09%0,每基因座等位基因平均數目分別為1.051,每基因座位基因的有效數目分別為1.011。這些數值與其他針葉樹相比,臺灣穗花杉的值甚低,顯示遺傳歧異度非常小。以F-statistics及基因歧異度分析族群間及族群內遺傳變異分配比率,結果發現大部分的遺傳變異存在於族群內,而族群間之變異量不及5%,顯示二個族群間並沒有明顯的遺傳分化。   Genetic diversity within and genetic differentiation among two populations, Ta-Wu and Tsa-Tsa-Ya-Lai, of the endangered species Amentotaxus formosana Li. in Taiwan were investigated using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Ten enzyme systems including 20 putative loci from young leaf tissue were assayed, with only 1 (PGI-1) of the 20 loci being polymorphic. The mean expected heterozygosity, the percent heterozygous / individual, the number of allele / locus, and the effective number of allele / locus was 0.008, 0.0009, 1.05, and 1.01, respectively, for the Ta-Wu population. No variation in band mobility was obeserved in any of these enzyme systems of the Tsa-Tsa-Ya-Lai population. The low degree of genetic variation in contrast with those reported from surveys of allozyme variation in coniferous species indicates that Amentotaxus formosana Li. is genetically depauperate.
  PGI-1-A, in addition to PGI-1-B was found only in Ta-Wu population, and two genotypes AB,BB were observed so far. It was found that PGI-1-A has higher frequency (0.125) in younger cohort than older (0.056), and heterozygote percentage of total individuals with DBH smaller than 5 cm is 25%.
  Partitioning of the genetic variation into within-and among-population components by using F-statistics and gene diversity analysis led to an estimate of within population variation amounting over 95% of total variation. These results suggest that no differentiation between these two populations.
                     林敏宜                      83 0 臺灣扁柏與紅檜原生質體融合與人工種子製作之初步研究                                                                                                                                                                                     A preliminary study on the protoplast fusion of chamaecyparis obtusa var formosana and chamaecyparis formosensis and production of artificial seed                                                                                                              王亞男                      ,姜家華                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
                     李建霖                      83 0 不同種源青剛櫟同位酵素變異之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                Allozyme variation of different provenances of cyclobalanopsis glauca                                                                                                                                                                                           姜家華                      ,潘富俊                      ,王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
                     朱建華                      83 0 臺灣油杉、臺灣穗花杉體細胞分裂、核型及根尖分生組織超顯微構造之研究                                                                                                                                                             Studies on mitosis, karyotype and ultrastructure of root tip meristem of keteleeria davidiana var formosana and amentotaxus formosana                                                                                                                           姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
                     何家名                      82 0 不同溫度對臺灣杉組織培養苗與實生苗養分濃度之影響                                                                                                                                                                                        The effects of various temperatures on the nutrient concentration of tissue cuture plants and seedlings of Taiwania                                                                                                                                             姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立臺灣大學                                 森林學研究所                                           碩士                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
R79605035            李鎮宇                      81 0 紅檜五個族群同位酵素變異之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Allozyme Variation in Five Populations of Chamaecyparis                                                                                                                                                                                                         姜家華;王亞男             國立台灣大學                                 森林學系                                                 碩士     紅檜,族群                                                                                                                                                                                                   Taiwania cryptomerioides,tissue culture,micropropagation                                                                                                                 本實驗利用紅檜34個家系340株一年生苗木,測定族群內遺傳歧異度及族群間遺傳分化。21個基因座中有五個為多形性。每一族群多形性基因座平均
比率為
21.1% (99%多形性標準下) 平均異結合性期望值範圍從0.056 0.098。每一個體異結合性基因座百分比範圍從5.2% 10.7% ,每基因座等位基因數目範圍從1.06 1.11  與其他針葉樹種相比紅檜有較低的異結合性期望值及每基因座等位基因數目 ,這個結果可能為島嶼族群型態的反映。以  F-statistics  及基因歧異度分析,族群間及族群內遺傳變異分配比率,結果發現族群內的變異量占總變異量91% ,族群間只占9%由棲蘭及四稜兩族群可看出,雖然這兩個族群分布不同海拔(分別為 1200公尺到1800公尺) 及不同方位(東北與西南)但卻有極相近的遺傳相似性值。這個結果顯示紅檜天然族群缺乏次結構的分化,其原因可能為族群間基因流動缺乏有效障礙所致。而族群之遺傳距離間並沒有很高的相關性。
 
R79605018            余金益                      81 0 臺灣杉之微體繁殖                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Micropropagation of Taiwania cryptomerioides                                                                                                                                                                                                                姜家華;王亞男             國立台灣大學                                 森林學系                                                 碩士     臺灣杉,組織培養,微體繁殖                                                                                                                                                                                             Taiwania cryptomerioides,tissue culture,micropropagation                                                                                                                 本試驗嘗試建立台灣杉 ( Taiwania cryptomerioides ) 之微體繁殖體系。初步結果獲悉:以5年生台灣杉頂芽莖段為培植體, 培養於含 10 mg/l BA0.5  mg/l kinetin1.6 mg/l 2,4-D B5培養基中之芽體誘導效果最好;培養基中需添加0.2%活性碳, 培植體以主枝帶頂芽之莖段為佳, 將培植體縱剖成兩半, 剖面朝下平放, 誘導芽體之效果最好。誘得之芽體移至含0.1 0.4 1.6 mg/l IBA1.6 mg/l 2,4-DB5培養基, 芽體抽長的效果最好。將抽長之芽體直接扦插於以珍珠石、蛭石及泥炭土等比例混合之介質中, 置於密集噴霧系統下, 發根 (存活) 率可達42.8% 。而以25生台灣杉萌蘗莖段為培植體, 培養於B5培養基中, 目前僅能誘得芽体。                This study tries to establish a micropropagation model of Taiwania cryptomerioides. The  best  model of buds inducing for 5-year-old Taiwania is to put the explants of nodal stem segments with  terminal buds on B5 medium containing  10 mg/l BA or 0.5 mg/l kinetin or 1.6 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2% charcoal. Transfer the induced buds to B5 medium containing  0.1 or 0.4 or 1.6 mg/l IBA or 1.6 mg/l 2,4-D and  0.2% charcoal for well elongation of buds.  Then, transfer the elongated buds to the medium mixing with  equal  perlite,  vermiculite  and peat under the well-controlled sprinkling system for rooting . The rooting (survival) rate is about 42.8%. Axillary  buds  have been  induced  from  the nodal stem segments of epicormics of 25-year-old Taiwania on B5  medium supplemented with cytokinin (BA) and auxin (NAA), too.
                     沈敏娟                      80 0 銀杏之組織培養                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Tissue culture of ginkgo biloba                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     銀杏,組織,培養                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    本試驗嘗試探討銀杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)在試管內之生長習性並建立其組織培養之繁殖體系,初步結果:在表面消毒方面,種子可達零污染,4個月實生苗莖段及成熟株腋芽培植體之無污染率分別控制在50﹪及43.3﹪。在多芽體誘導方面,僅以胚軸為培植體培養可獲得多芽體,於WPM 培養基,添加1 ppm BA;胚培植體培養於MS培養基添加1600 mg/l 麩胺酸(glutamine) 1000 mg/l 水解酪蛋白(casein hydrolysate) 30﹪椰子汁(coconut milk)1 ppm BA會有芽體產生,似為材料之子葉間芽;子葉帶有原葉體之培植體於MS培養基,添加15 ppm Kinetin,可誘導葉片發生,而五日生無菌苗之子葉則可誘導癒合組織;成熟株腋芽培植體,於含cytokininMS培養基中培養真葉捲曲狀開展且易玻璃質化,培養約二個月後褐化。誘導形成之多芽體及葉於不含任何植物生長調節劑之MS液態培養基中伸長效果最佳。癒合組織之誘導,以胚培植體於MS培養基,添加5 ppm Kinetin2 ppm NAA光照環境下誘導效果較佳,細胞可分化出維管束;添加1 ppm Kinetin2 ppm NAA誘導之癒合組織,持續生長情形最好,該癒合組織經2 ppm ABA 處理3天後之懸浮細胞,表面形成綠色球狀組織且已分化成管胞。玻璃質化現象在芽體以BA誘導及液態培養基試驗芽體伸長時,產生頻率較高,藉著縮短芽體停留於液態培養基之時間可減少玻璃質化現象。  
                     鄭瑞仁                      80 0 不同溫度與修剪對臺灣杉組織培養苗與實生苗之生長效應                                                                                                                                                                                     The effects of various temperatures and branch prunning on the growth of tissue culture plants and seedling of taiwania                                                                                                                                         姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     修剪,苗木生長,台灣杉                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 本試驗係以培育一年生之臺灣杉實生苗及組織培養苗於材料,置於臺灣大學人工氣候室溫室不同溫度處理下一年,觀察不同種類苗木在不同溫度處理間之效應,試驗分兩階段:
1.自民國八十年二月至八十一年二月調查苗高、基徑、側枝、葉綠素含量、乾重並計算及品質指數,以評定不同種類苗木之生長差異,並以探討不同溫度處理對不同苗木間效應。
2.八十年八月進行苗木枝條不同強度之修剪,至八十一年二月結束,以瞭解枝條不同修剪強度之效應,並比較其對生長及苗木品質之影響。各生長性狀經統計分析,其結果如下:
(1)就生長性狀而言,不同苗木間之差異極為顯著,綜合而言,組織培養苗生長優於實生苗。
(2)不同溫度處理對苗木生長及品質有顯著影響,兩種苗木在三種溫度處理下相較,以白天25℃夜間20℃生長較優,苗木品質較佳。
(3)苗木修剪之初有助苗木品質改善,然苗木修前半年後生長結果,顯示T R 值與梢系生長提昇,長期效應上,有苗木品質漸劣疑慮,在苗高、基徑生長及側枝淨生長差異並不顯著。
 
                     洪培元                      80 0 不同種源臺灣櫸同功酶變異之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Isozyme variations in different provenances of zelkova serrata                                                                                                                                                                                                  姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     台灣櫸,同功酶,變異,榆科                                                                                                                                                                                                   ZELKOVA SERRATA                                                                                                                  台灣櫸(Zelkova serrata) 屬榆科,為台灣原產之優良闊葉樹種;本研究以二年生小苗之葉為材料,藉聚丙烯硫胺膠電泳分離技術,探討3 個種源4 種脢系統(穀胺酸草硫乙酸轉氨基脢、酯化脢、莽草酸脫氫脢、過氧化脢)之6 個基因座同功脢基因型之遺傳變異;同時探討不同葉齡之電泳分離結果有無差異。實驗結果顯示,台灣櫸種源內異質結合體不足,同質結合體過量,處於非平衡狀態;種源之分化程度較低,大部分變異存在種源內,種源間之變異約佔總變異之3%。種源內同功脢之變異,根據多形性基因座標準2 (≦0.99)顯示,61.1% 之基因座為多形性。6 個基因座所有樣本之異質結合性平均值為0.159 ,每個基因座之平均等位基因數為2.000 。種源同功脢之分化,所有配對組合,種源間之平均遺傳距離為0.016 ,故種源之分化與地離距離之隔離無明顯關係。不同葉齡之電泳分離結果顯示,穀胺酸草硫乙酸轉氨基脢(GOT) 、酯化脢(EST) 與莽草酸脫氫脢(SKDH)以新葉較為清晰,過氧化脢(PER) 則以完全成熟之老葉最清晰且完整。  
                     蔡宗叡                      79 0 雪梨藍桉之組織培養                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     雪梨藍桉,組織培養,微體繁殖,多芽體,不定芽,原生質體                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              本試驗嘗試建立雪梨藍桉(Eucalyptus saligna)之微體繁殖體系,初步結果獲悉:以小苗之帶節莖段,胚,頂芽,子葉與胚軸為培植體,培養於添加Cytokinin (BA KN ) Auxin (NAA) B 培養基,可以誘得多芽或不定芽。最適於各種培植體誘導芽體發生之植物生長調節劑處理分別為:小苗之帶節莖段:1 ppm KN ,胚:0.5ppm BA ,頂芽:1 ppm BA 0.5 ppm NAA,子葉:1 ppm BA 0.1 ppm NAA, 胚軸: 1 ppm BA 0.5 ppm NAA。誘得之芽體移至含1%蔗糖之MS固態培養基或含2%蔗糖之B5 液態培養基,節間可繼續抽長。抽長的枝條經切離移植於含1-2%蔗糖與1 ppm NAAMSB5 培養基中,發根率可達100%。再生之植株於溫室中健化良好,存活率約為90% ,生長3個月後苗高可達8 cm 。取自8年生成熟木之培植體亦可誘得多芽體,然生長較慢,仍停留在芽體增殖與抽長之階段。
另以懸浮培養之細胞做為分離原生質體的材料,經
1% Cellulysin 0.2% Pectolyase Y-23酵素溶液處理,原生質體收量甚佳,可達1.5×10 /ml 。培養3天後具活力之原生質體約為78% ,其中86% 形成細胞壁。
 
                     胡文菁                      78 0 杉木之微體繁殖輿原生質體分離                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     杉木,微體繁殖,原生質體,分離,培養基,懸浮細胞                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) var. lanceolata)之莖段培植體經置人添加BA l ppmNAA 0.05 ppmB5培養基中,可誘出健壯之芽體;若以未成熟胚為培植體,則以八月發育至晚胚階段之未成熟胚,置於添加BA 3 ppm NAA 0.01 ppmB5培養基中,可誘出較多芽體。隨後將芽體培養於MS培養基中,使之延伸成枝條。將此枝條以NAA 0.3-0.5 ppm誘根,一個月後發根率約57-69% ;此無菌苗移入溫室中健化,約有80%苗木可存活,存活之苗林二個月高生長約3公分。莖段若置於添加NAA 1-3 ppm MS培養基中,可誘出癒合組織並有不定根之分化;五、六、七月未成熟胚誘導癒合組織效果,以七月之未成熟胚最佳,並分化形成不定根。
取杉木無菌苗之葉為原生質體分離材料時,以採用
0.5%纖維素  0.5%半纖維素  0.5%果膠  之酵素混合溶液處理21小時,可達最大產量1.8×10 /g分離時使用之滲透壓劑溶液浸泡90分鐘,可提高原生質體產量。
若取懸浮細胞為原生質體分離材時,以
2%纖維素、0.5%半纖維素  0.5%果膠之酵素混合溶液處理8小時,產量最高;而以NAA 5 ppm培養之懸浮細胞,原生質體產量達最高1.9×10 /ml 。原生質體培養基內含濃度12% (W/V) 葡萄糖,可降低原生質膜突出之比例,且於培養過程中逐漸降低葡萄糖濃度,有助於原生物質體存活。原生質體於培養二天後形成細胞壁,8天後原生質體初次分裂,14天後形成4-5 個細胞之微細胞團,但此微細胞團並未再繼續增殖。
 
                     李崇銘                      77 0 柳杉種源試驗十五年生林木之生長表現                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     樹木,柳杉,生長                                                                                                                                                                                                   TREE,WILLOW,FIR,GROW                                                                                                                             本試驗所用之苗本係於1972年自日本引起86個活源之種子培而成,於1974年春栽植於全省七個試驗地,1976年進行第一次調查,1982年進行二次調查,又於1987年進行第三次調查,調查各試驗地林木之樹高、胸徑、力枝長、枝下高、樹冠幅、結實率、松鼠害、存活率、平均單木材積,以層級複因子模式分析調查資料,其如果如后:
各試驗地之樹高生長以沙里仙最佳,溪頭次之,關山最差,胸徑生長以棲蘭山
35林班最優,阿里山次之,關山最差;力枝以玉里最長,溪頭最短,枝下高,以溪頭最高,阿里山最低;樹冠幅以玉里最大,關最小;結實率玉里最豐,沙里仙最低;松鼠害以玉里最嚴重,棲蘭山46林最輕微;林木存活率以溪頭最高,玉里最低;平低單木材積則以棲蘭山35林班最大,關山最差。
各試驗地平均單木材積生長最優之種源如下表:
                    ┌────┬───────┬──────────────┐
                    │實驗地                                                           
                    ├────┼───────┼──────────────┤
                    │溪        四國,九州        48,53,91,57,49,61,54,98,68,95    
                    ├────┼───────┼──────────────┤
                    │沙里仙    四國,關西        98,97,45,71,48,94,91,99,52,56    
                    ├────┼───────┼──────────────┤
                    │阿里山    關西,四國        43,45,58,94,57,99,97,91,52,49    
                    ├────┼───────┼──────────────┤
                    │關        九州,四國        52,1003,50,57,91,45,49,15,54,59
                    ├────┼───────┼──────────────┤
                    │玉        九州,四國        58,53,60,91,54,57,72,67,52,50    
                    ├────┼───────┼──────────────┤
                    │棲蘭山35│九州,關東2     56,50,57,4,55,60,54,44,94,76      
                    ├────┼───────┼──────────────┤
                    │棲蘭山46│九州,關東2     52,62,4,61,72,8,70,68,54,93        
                    └────┴───────┴──────────────┘
2年生樹高與4年生樹高及10年生、15年生樹高間呈顯著正相關,惟其相關係數呈遞減性趨勢,故早期生長若以長輪伐期柳杉作為選種依據時,似宜謹慎。
 
                     蔡佳蓉                      77 0 台灣扁柏與紅檜組織培養之大量繁殖                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     台灣,扁柏,紅檜,組織,培養,繁殖                                                                                                                                                                                                   TAIWAN,CYPRESS,CYPRESS,TISSUE,CULTIVATION,REPRODUCE                                                                                                                        本研究之目的在於明瞭台灣重要針葉樹一級木之台灣扁柏與紅檜,其應用組織培養之可性與技術,誘導器官發生及體胚產生,以達到大量繁殖苗木之目的。研究材料以台灣扁柏與紅檜之子葉、針葉、下胚軸、帶針葉之莖頂、莖段、成熟胚、未成熟胚為培植體,培養於WPMmodified)基本培養基中,添加NAA 0-10 mgl ),BAP0-20 mgl )不同濃度組合之培養基,以誘導癒合組織,不定芽、多芽體或體胚之產生。
結果顯示以不同培養基,誘導芽體形成之途逕有三種:1﹒直接於培植體(子葉表面、子葉基部、針葉表面、針葉基部、帶針葉之莖頂基部)產生不定芽;2﹒由培植體(子葉、針葉、下胚軸、帶針葉之莖頂、甚段、成熟胚、未成熟胚)經癒合組織產生不定芽;3﹒以帶針葉之莖頂、莖段為培植體,可誘導多芽體產生。
將所誘得之芽體分切移植至
W15NAA  0.1BAP 0.5 mgl )培養基繼代培養,可獲得芽群之大量增殖,其速度及數量均極為驚人,尤其台灣扁柏以成熟胚、未成熟胚為培植體;紅檜以帶針葉之莖頂為培植體時,可達到最佳之增殖效果。將芽體移至不含任何植物生長調節劑之培養基中,經約30天左右,可促使枝條伸長並誘導發根而成為一完整植株,隨後將小植株移至以蛭石、珍珠石、泥炭土等比例混合之介質中馴化出栽,不僅生長良好,且存活率可高達97%以上。估計一年內繁殖8數量,最少可達3.1×10^8個植株。
台灣扁柏(成熟胚、未成熟胚、帶針葉之莖頂)與紅檜(帶針葉之莖頂)之培植體,固定以
W14NAA 0.5BAP 2 mgl )培養基,經繼代培養2-3代後;或再轉換至W15NAA  0.1BAP 0.5 mgl )培養基;或是居定以W15培養基行繼代培養,均會產生體胚。
 
                     吳淑華                      77 0 台灣杉及威氏帝杉之組織培養                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     台灣,台灣杉,威氏帝杉,組織,培養                                                                                                                                                                                                   TAIWAN,TAIWANIA-CRYPTOMERIOIDES-HAY,PSEUDOTSUGA-WILSONIANA-HAY,TISSUE,CULTIVATION                                                                                                                      台灣杉(Taiwania cryptomerioides Hay﹒)4個月生實生苗莖段培植體,用50 ppm Ampiciline、浸泡15分鐘,對細菌污染之抑制效果可達75%、且無藥害;該培植體於B5 培養基,加上0.10.01ppm MAA 13 ppm BA,可誘得多芽體;切離之芽體經B5 加上0.05 ppm NAA 之誘根培養基可100%發根,完整植株,並可正常直立生長於溫室;另由多芽體莖段誘至之癒合組織,不論經由固態培養或懸浮培養,均分化成不定根。在成熟胚之培養方面,可誘至黏稠性之癒合組織;另外以50-60年生林木當年生枝條為培植體,結果多褐化死亡,僅少數枝條萌發出側芽。
威氏帝杉(
Pesudotsuga wilsoniana Hay﹒)之上胚軸培養結果,放於MSDCR Cheng 三種培養基中,以MSCheng 培養基能誘至較多之芽體,然其中僅4%之芽體可誘得根系。培根體於不含BA之培養,可形成鬆軟之癒合組織;添加BA者則形成綠色、堅硬之癒合組織,表層並分化成白色、絨毛狀之細胞群。
 
                     魯丁慧                      76 0 台灣三種固有針葉樹之組織培養                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     台灣,針葉木,華山松,癒合組織,紅豆杉,台灣杉                                                                                                                                                                                                TAIWAN                                                                                                                           取華山松成熟胚、胚軸、子葉、針葉、莖等為培植體,以MS培養基作為基本培養基,由試驗結果顯示,在成熟胚與未成熟之培養中,添加1-6 mg/l 2,4-D +1mg/l BA,皆可得合租織,單獨使用低濃度Auxin2,4-D or NAA)者,癒合組織之誘發較慢。
 添加0.5 mg/l 2,4-D +3mg/l BA者,經暗中處理可使成熟胚不經由愈合組織直接形成多芽體,而含3mg/l 2,4-D +2mg/l BA時,則可於子葉腋部產生芽體。
材料採集之季節及發育期,會影響癒合組織生成及器官分化,紅豆杉於九、十月間採得之側芽在含2
mg/l  NAA+1mg/l BA中可得癒合組織,而在十二月底採得之側芽,僅有萌發長而無癒合組織產生。
臺灣杉成熟胚置於含3
mg/l 2,4-D B5培養基,可誘出癒合組織,然往往有乳狀黏液產生,子葉與胚軸於3mg/l 2,4-D +1mg/l BAB5培養基,亦可得癒合組織,繼代培養後,亦產生如前述之情況,但以0.5-1 mg/l penicillinrifampinic等抗生素,則可獲得20-30%之控制率。
 
                     張國楨                      76 0 不同種源巒大杉同位酵素變異之研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                姜家華                      ,王亞男                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              碩士     樹木,巒大杉,同位酵素,過氧化同位酵素,酯同位酵素                                                                                                                                                                                          CUNNINGHAMIA KONISHII HAY,ISOPEROXIDASE,ISOESTERASE                                                                                                                      本實驗係利用電泳分離法及組織化學染色技術,研究過氧化同位酵素(isoperoxidase)及酯同位酵素(isoesterase )於巒木杉(Cunninghamia konishii Hay)不同組織、不同萌發階段及不同種源苗木之變異情形。
各組織中共出現
29條過氧化同位酵素帶、10條酯同位酵素帶,其型式及濃度隨組織、成熟度之不同而異。不同萌發階段中共出現26條過氧化同位酵素帶、19條酯同位酵素帶,兩同位酵素帶於胚部均隨發芽之進行而增加;胚根之過氧化同位酵素較子葉多,而酯同位酵素則相反。
不同種源苗木過氧化同位酵素及酯同位酵素變異方面,育苗所用種子係採自
4個種源、20株母樹,芽軸出現之幼苗為試驗材料,結果如下:
1.所有種源中共出現
29條過氧化同位酵素帶、20條酯同位酵素帶。以其於各種源中出現頻度進行卡方分析,過氧化同位酵素帶除酵素帶1821272829差異不顯著外,其餘均呈極顥著差異;酯同位酵素帶除酵素帶8121314差異不顯著外,其餘均呈顯著或極顯著差異。
2.以卡方分布分析兩種源間之變異時,二種不同酵素各有
6組配對,皆呈極顯著差異;而以區別估值分析時,則6對亦均呈極顯著差異。
3.變異分析結果過氧化同位酵素有酵素帶
10112224等4帶顯著顯著差異;酯同位酵素則有酵素帶12910161719208帶呈顯著或極顯著差異,上述之酵素帶可做為區別種源之依據。兩種酵素中大多數酵素帶之變異成分以種源內較種源間為大。
 
                     王亞男                      75 0 台灣油杉的生殖週期與其解剖學研究                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                劉棠瑞                       國立台灣大學                                 森林研究所                                              博士     台灣,油杉,生殖週期,系統分類學,育林學                                                                                                                                                                                                TAIWAN                                                                                                                           一、本研究所用之台灣油杉材料,係以栽植於台北植物園者為主,而以坪林之天然生者為輔。初期觀察乃自民國6911月起,至714月為止。其後在714月至764月間曾繼續採集及觀察。所採集與觀察之台灣油杉部份,包括不同時期之營養器官,如枝、葉與生殖器官,如雌、雄花及果實。利用放大鏡、Nikon FX35A 光學顯微鏡及日立S-550S-520掃描式電子顯微鏡等仔細觀察其外形,然後攝影並紀錄,俾能了解其在生物學上之特微,主要為其生殖發育之過程,亦即其生活史。
二、根據觀察,台灣油杉營養芽之活動,可分為三個時期:即(
1)第一生長期由4月上旬至6月下旬;(2)第二生長期由7月上旬至10月下旬;(3)靜止期由11月上旬至翌年3月下旬。在靜止時期,營養芽頂端內部分生組織之體積較大,而生長活動旺盛時期,體積反而變小,此當然乃由於該部分組織之分化與養分之消耗使然。生殖芽由部分腋芽轉變而成,通常在每年78月間開始分化。
三、台灣油杉的雄毬花著生在小枝的頂端或葉腋,通常產生
3-7朵而形成一頭狀花序。3月上旬,在芽鱗展開之後,毬花始行露出。2月上旬成團之孢原細胞不斷進行分裂,形成花粉母細胞,經短暫休眠後,2月底花粉母細胞彼此分離。至3月上旬,雄毬花在花序中展開之際,母細胞開始行減數分裂,在兩次分裂連續進行之後,遂形成四分子體。當孢子囊展開時,四分子體乃分離而成為游離之小孢子,即花粉。此時花粉細胞分裂而形成退化原葉體細胞、一生殖細胞及一管細胞。花粉囊成熟,即行縱裂,以散出花粉。台灣油杉的傳粉至授精,約需2個月。
四、雌花芽起源於苞片之芽原。
11月中旬,可看到由珠鱗近近軸一面之表皮細胞所形成的珠原,至12月上旬已分化成等高而為數約6個細胞之珠心與珠皮。經過休眠,至2月底,珠皮生長加速,超過珠心,此時可見珠孔。在3月下旬,孢原細胞分化,成為大孢子母細胞。台灣油杉在4月上旬,花粉即可飛散至珠孔,傳粉後,內側之珠皮細胞向中央延伸,充滿珠孔而將之阻塞,使珠孔關閉。此時大孢原細胞進行減數分裂,形成線形之四分子體,其中3個細胞常立即退化而萎縮,僅存一個大孢子細胞。此一大孢子細胞之核,連續進行分裂以形成配子體。雌配子體起初為一游離之多核體,隨後細胞壁開始出現,雌配子體始發育為一實心之多細胞組織。在此配子體形成之同時,上表皮內有些原葉體細胞即小囊胞形成藏卵器始原細胞,分裂形成原始頸細胞、中央細胞(此細胞後變成一腹溝細胞核與卵核)。6月中旬在授精之後,即形成受精卵。受精卵隨進行分裂,發育而形成胚。台灣油杉的原胚係由4層的16個細胞所成;早期的胚為分裂的多胚,出現於最後形成的胚管之上;8月下旬,晚期的胚內各種器官已分化完成,胚的子葉有2-5枚,發芽時不出土。種子在10月待成熟,隨種子之成熟,果鱗在11-12月張開,以散出種子。種子飛散後,毬果可繼續留存在母樹上1-2年。
五、根據統計,台灣油杉的種子
85%為空粒,發芽率僅為0.5%,可能係因自花傳粉之故。發芽時,胚根生長迅速,3天內可長至2-3公分,無根毛;幼莖上則密佈銀白色之絨毛,新長出之幼葉8-10枚,呈螺旋狀排列,葉背已有明顯之氣孔帶。
六、就作者本次之觀察與研究,已知台灣油杉之生活史約需
16個月始能完成。
七、又本文另將台灣油杉之生育習性、天然生育地環境,諸如氣候、生育地土壤、伴生植物及其地理分佈;另將台灣油杉木材所含之精油、幼苗呼吸量及染色體等均曾扼要給予敘述,藉以供系統分類學及育林學研究上之參考。