3. Airstream mechanisms and phonation types

     The first place to visit for supplementary material on Chapter 6 is Ladefoged's own site. Here is the chapter index:


     And here's the link for Ladefoged/Disner's Vowels and Consonants:


     You will find examples keyed to each major subtopic in the chapter. They are rather difficult to perceive clearly without visual information and feedback. But keep playing each example over and over, comparing it to the one it is paired with. Reread the text when necessary and recall classroom discussions and demonstrations. If you still have problems, bring them to class. It takes time! Don't get too frustrated with yourself.

     You will also find examples of the performance exercises. Try to do these yourself first, then compare your performance with that in the sound file.

     Here is a page by phonetician Ian Maddieson on the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) website with information on the distribution of glottized consonants in the world's languages:


     Here is an excellent page from the Universität Stuttgart in Germany, with sound files:


     Go to the 'home' page of any of these sites to explore more resources.

Next: Having trouble with ejectives, implosives and clicks? Try the next page...


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